Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a meta-analysis of mortality factors.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to review all available studies reported in the English-language literature from 1975 through 1998, and by meta-analysis assess the importance of prenatal diagnosis, associated malformations, side of hernia, timing of surgery, and study population on mortality rates in patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).
One-hundred-two studies were identified, and 51 studies (2,980 patients) fulfilled the prespecified inclusion criteria. Studies were grouped according to study population into: (I) fetuses diagnosed prenatally; (II) neonates admitted to a treatment center; and (III) population-based studies.
Pooled total mortality rate was significantly higher in category I than in category III (75.6% v 58.2%, P < .001). Pooled hidden postnatal mortality rate (deaths before admittance to a treatment center) in population-based studies was 34.9%. Prenatally diagnosed patients in both category II and III had significantly higher mortality rates than those diagnosed postnatally. Mortality rates were significantly higher among CDH infants with associated major malformations compared with isolated CDH in all 3 categories. An increased mortality rate in right-sided CDH was found in category II and III.
Prenatal diagnosis of CDH, presence of associated major malformations, and the study population have a major influence on mortality rate. The very high mortality rate in studies of fetuses with a prenatal diagnosis of CDH should be taken into account in prenatal counselling.
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether prominent intrapulmonary anastomotic vessels (IPAVs) or bronchopulmonary "shunt" vessels can be identified in lungs from infants with fatal congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).Journal of Pediatrics 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.09.010 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) may be isolated or associated with other structural anomalies, the latter with poor prognosis. The defect allows viscera to herniate through the defect into the chest, competing for space with the developing lungs. At birth, pulmonary hypoplasia leads to respiratory insufficiency and persistent pulmonary hypertension that is lethal in up to 30% of patients. When isolated, survival chances can be predicted by antenatal measurement of lung size and liver herniation. Chromosomal microarrays and exome sequencing contribute to understanding genetic factors underlying isolated CDH. Prenatal intervention aims at stimulating lung development, clinically achieved by percutaneous fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO) under local anesthesia. The Tracheal Occlusion To Accelerate Lung growth trial (www.totaltrial.eu) is an international randomized trial investigating the role of fetal therapy for severe and moderate pulmonary hypoplasia. Despite an apparent increase in survival following FETO, the search for lesser invasive and more potent prenatal interventions must continue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.siny.2014.09.006 · 3.13 Impact Factor