Reported chronic insomnia is independent of poor sleep as measured by electroencephalography.
ABSTRACT Several behavioral, physiological, and subjective variables were examined in subjects reporting chronic insomnia (IN group) and subjects with no complaint of insomnia (NC group) to determine factors predictive of poor sleep as measured by electroencephalography (EEG sleep).
A total of 177 subjects (121 in the IN group and 56 in the NC group) were evaluated on the basis of EEG sleep, subjective sleep, sleepiness, performance, mood, personality, and metabolic parameters during a 36-hour laboratory stay.
Equal percentages of subjects in each group had 0, 1, or 2 nights of poor EEG sleep, indicating that the IN group was not more likely to have impaired sleep in the laboratory. Results of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory showed that subjects in the IN group had more pathological personality profiles, and results of laboratory studies showed that these subjects had worse mood ratings, less subjective sleepiness, poorer memory performance, and longer midafternoon sleep latencies. Subjects in the IN group also rated their laboratory sleep as poorer in quality with more time awake after sleep onset and longer sleep latencies, but no differences in EEG sleep were observed. Poor nights of EEG sleep were associated with being male, increasing age, and a history of more time awake after sleep onset; among the laboratory tests, poor EEG sleep was associated with worse mood ratings, poorer memory performance, longer sleep latencies (as indicated by higher scores on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test), higher sleep/wake ratios for metabolic parameters, lower ratings of sleep quality, and longer perceived sleep latencies.
A history of chronic insomnia does not predict poor EEG sleep. Both chronic insomnia and poor EEG sleep are associated independently with dysphoria, hyperarousal, diminished waking function, and negative subjective sleep quality. Separate arousal and sleep systems are posited to account for these results.
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ABSTRACT: We compared subjective and objective sleep patterns and problems, and examined cross-method correspondence across parent reports, child reports, and actigraphy-derived sleep variables in clinically-anxious children and healthy controls. In a multi-site, cross-sectional study, 75 pre-adolescent children (6 to 11 years; M=8.7 years; SD=1.4; 39/52% female) were examined including 39 with a diagnosis of primary generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and 36 controls recruited from university-based clinics in Houston, TX and Washington, DC. Structured interviews, validated sleep questionnaires, and 1-week of actigraphy data were utilized. Despite subjective reports of significantly greater sleep problems among anxious children, actigraphy data revealed no significant differences between the groups. All parents estimated earlier bedtimes and greater total sleep duration relative to actigraphy, and all children endorsed more sleep problems than parents. With few exceptions, subjective reports exhibited low and non-significant correspondence with actigraphy-based sleep patterns and problems. Our findings suggest that high rates of sleep complaints found among children with GAD (and their parents) are not corroborated by objective sleep abnormalities, with the exception of marginally prolonged sleep onset latency compared to controls. Objective-subjective sleep discrepancies were observed in both groups but more apparent overall in the GAD group. Frequent complaints of sleep problems and daytime tiredness among anxious youth might more accurately reflect difficulties prior to the actual sleep period, cognitive-affective biases associated with sleep, and/or an increased sleep need. Findings highlight the importance of considering sleep from multiple perspectives.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 12/2015; 43(8):(in press). DOI:10.1007/s10802-015-0018-7 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Misperception of Sleep Onset Latency, often found in Primary Insomnia, has been cited to be influenced by hyperarousal, reflected in EEG- and ECG- related indices. The aim of this retrospective study was to examine the association between Central Nervous System (i.e. EEG) -and Autonomic Nervous System activity in the Sleep Onset Period and the first NREM sleep cycle in Primary Insomnia (n=17) and healthy controls (n=11). Furthermore, the study examined the influence of elevated EEG -and Autonomic Nervous System activity on Stage2 sleep-protective mechanisms (K-complexes and sleep spindles). Confirming previous findings, the Primary Insomnia-group overestimated Sleep Onset Latency and this overestimation was correlated with elevated EEG activity. A higher amount of beta EEG activity during the Sleep Onset Period was correlated with the appearance of K-complexes immediately followed by a sleep spindle in the Primary Insomnia-group. This can be interpreted as an extra attempt to protect sleep continuity or as a failure of the sleep-protective role of the K-complex by fast EEG frequencies following within one second. The strong association found between K-alpha (K-complex within one second followed by 8-12Hz EEG activity) in Stage2 sleep and a lower parasympathetic Autonomic Nervous System dominance (less high frequency HR) in Slow-wave sleep, further assumes a state of hyperarousal continuing through sleep in Primary Insomnia.International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 10/2013; 91(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2013.10.012 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of insomnia and related factors in a large cohort of mid-aged Colombian women of different ethnical background. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 1325 women aged 40-59 of 3 ethnical groups: Mestizo (70.0%), Black (11.5%) and Zenú indigenous (18.5%), who completed the items of the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and a general questionnaire containing personal socio-demographic data. RESULTS: Median [interquartile range] age of the whole sample was 48.0 [10.0] years. A 43.4% were postmenopausal, 51.7% had increased body mass index values, 18.2% had hypertension and 5.1% used hormone therapy. A 27.5% displayed insomnia (AIS total score ≥6). Significant Spearman rho correlations were found between total AIS and MRS scores (total and subscales). Multiple linear regression analysis found that higher total AIS scores (more insomnia) correlated with tobacco consumption and higher MRS psychological and somatic subscale scores (more severe symptoms). Age, ethnicity and partner and menopausal status were excluded from the final regression model. CONCLUSIONS: In this large mid-aged Colombian cohort insomnia was present in nearly one third of cases, related to smoking habit and the severity of somatic and psychological menopausal symptoms and independent of ethnics and menopausal status.Maturitas 02/2013; 74(4). DOI:10.1016/j.maturitas.2013.01.009 · 2.86 Impact Factor