Reported Chronic Insomnia Is Independent of Poor Sleep as Measured by Electroencephalography

Taft Laboratories, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and University of Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA.
Psychosomatic Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.47). 07/2000; 62(4):474-82. DOI: 10.1097/00006842-200007000-00004
Source: PubMed


Several behavioral, physiological, and subjective variables were examined in subjects reporting chronic insomnia (IN group) and subjects with no complaint of insomnia (NC group) to determine factors predictive of poor sleep as measured by electroencephalography (EEG sleep).
A total of 177 subjects (121 in the IN group and 56 in the NC group) were evaluated on the basis of EEG sleep, subjective sleep, sleepiness, performance, mood, personality, and metabolic parameters during a 36-hour laboratory stay.
Equal percentages of subjects in each group had 0, 1, or 2 nights of poor EEG sleep, indicating that the IN group was not more likely to have impaired sleep in the laboratory. Results of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory showed that subjects in the IN group had more pathological personality profiles, and results of laboratory studies showed that these subjects had worse mood ratings, less subjective sleepiness, poorer memory performance, and longer midafternoon sleep latencies. Subjects in the IN group also rated their laboratory sleep as poorer in quality with more time awake after sleep onset and longer sleep latencies, but no differences in EEG sleep were observed. Poor nights of EEG sleep were associated with being male, increasing age, and a history of more time awake after sleep onset; among the laboratory tests, poor EEG sleep was associated with worse mood ratings, poorer memory performance, longer sleep latencies (as indicated by higher scores on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test), higher sleep/wake ratios for metabolic parameters, lower ratings of sleep quality, and longer perceived sleep latencies.
A history of chronic insomnia does not predict poor EEG sleep. Both chronic insomnia and poor EEG sleep are associated independently with dysphoria, hyperarousal, diminished waking function, and negative subjective sleep quality. Separate arousal and sleep systems are posited to account for these results.

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    • "However, both informants' subjective sleep reports were found to be internally consistent and differentiated the anxious and control groups. Moreover, the low correspondence estimates observed between subjective and objective sleep measures is consistent with the mental health field in general (De Los Reyes and Aldao 2015; De Los Reyes et al. 2015; De Los Reyes and Kazdin 2005; De Los Reyes et al. 2013b) and sleep research in general (Edinger et al. 2000; Rosa and Bonnet 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: We compared subjective and objective sleep patterns and problems, and examined cross-method correspondence across parent reports, child reports, and actigraphy-derived sleep variables in clinically-anxious children and healthy controls. In a multi-site, cross-sectional study, 75 pre-adolescent children (6 to 11 years; M=8.7 years; SD=1.4; 39/52% female) were examined including 39 with a diagnosis of primary generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and 36 controls recruited from university-based clinics in Houston, TX and Washington, DC. Structured interviews, validated sleep questionnaires, and 1-week of actigraphy data were utilized. Despite subjective reports of significantly greater sleep problems among anxious children, actigraphy data revealed no significant differences between the groups. All parents estimated earlier bedtimes and greater total sleep duration relative to actigraphy, and all children endorsed more sleep problems than parents. With few exceptions, subjective reports exhibited low and non-significant correspondence with actigraphy-based sleep patterns and problems. Our findings suggest that high rates of sleep complaints found among children with GAD (and their parents) are not corroborated by objective sleep abnormalities, with the exception of marginally prolonged sleep onset latency compared to controls. Objective-subjective sleep discrepancies were observed in both groups but more apparent overall in the GAD group. Frequent complaints of sleep problems and daytime tiredness among anxious youth might more accurately reflect difficulties prior to the actual sleep period, cognitive-affective biases associated with sleep, and/or an increased sleep need. Findings highlight the importance of considering sleep from multiple perspectives.
    Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 12/2015; 43(8):(in press). DOI:10.1007/s10802-015-0018-7 · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    • "Monroe, 1967; Coates et al., 1983) and estimations of good sleepers (e.g. Rosa and Bonnet, 2000). Some research findings (e.g. "
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    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 10/2013; 91(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2013.10.012 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    • "However, in contrast to these clear differences in subjective symptoms the differences in objective sleep diary variables, daytime hypersomnia scales, and PSG sleep parameters between migraineurs and controls were smaller. A similar discrepancy has previously been found among chronic insomniacs [22]. Insomnia is also a risk factor for migraine [23]. "
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    The Journal of Headache and Pain 02/2013; 14(1):12. DOI:10.1186/1129-2377-14-12 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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