Identification of cranial nerve nuclei.
Muscle & Nerve (Impact Factor: 2.31). 10/2000; 23(9):1445-6. DOI:10.1002/1097-4598(200009)23:93.0.CO;2-Z
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ABSTRACT: We examined the effects of electrical stimulation of a restricted area of the dorsal medullary reticular formation (DMRF) on regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) in anesthetized (by chloralose), paralyzed (by curare) rats. CBF was measured in tissue samples by the Kety principle, with 14C-iodoantipyrine as indicator. Stimulation of DMRF elicited a widespread, significant increase in CBF in 12 of 13 areas. The increase in flow was greatest in cerebral cortex, up to 240% of control. However, it was also substantially increased in selected regions of telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, and lower brainstem, but not cerebellum. In contrast, electrical stimulation of the midline (interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus) 1 mm medial to the DMRF did not change CBF. The increase in CBF evoked by DMRF stimulation persisted after transection of the spinal cord at C1 or cervical sympathetic trunk. We conclude that excitation of neurons originating in or passing through the DMRF can elicit a potent and virtually global increase of CBF. The effect appears to be mediated by intrinsic pathways of the central nervous system.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 10/1983; 3(3):270-9. · 5.40 Impact Factor
- Advances and technical standards in neurosurgery 02/1995; 22:261-341.
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ABSTRACT: To identify patterns of cranial motor nuclei (CMN) displacement in cases of intramedullary brain stem tumor, using neurophysiological mapping of motor nuclei on the floor of the fourth ventricle. Relationships between tumors and CMN were reviewed in 18 patients with brain stem tumors (seven pontine, nine medullary, and two pontomedullary tumors) and 2 with cervicomedullary junction spinal cord tumors. CMN VII, IX/X, and XII were mapped by applying electrical stimuli over the surgically exposed fourth ventricular floor through a handheld probe and recording electrical activity in the appropriate cranial muscles. Tumors distorted the anatomic location of CMN in repetitive patterns according to tumor site. Three patterns were identified as follows: Type 1, CMN located around the tumor on the floor of fourth ventricle; Type 2, one or more CMN located ventrally to the tumor; Type 3, CMN in original anatomic position. Six of seven patients with pontine tumors showed the Type 1 pattern. Seven of nine patients with medullary tumors showed Type 2, and the other two showed Type 1. Both patients with pontomedullary tumors showed Type 2. One patient with a cervicomedullary junction spinal cord tumor showed Type 1 and the other Type 3, depending on the tumor extension into the fourth ventricle. Pontine tumors push the CMN to around the tumor edge, suggesting that precise localization of CMN before tumor resection is necessary to avoid their damage. Medullary tumors grow more exophytically and compress the CMN ventrally. Understanding patterns of CMN displacement can help surgeons establish the surgical plan, minimize risks, and enable safer surgery of brain stem tumors.Neurosurgery 11/1996; 39(4):787-93; discussion 793-4. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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