Effect of CCK pretreatment on the CCK sensitivity of rat polymodal gastric vagal afferent in vitro.
ABSTRACT To prevent the blood-borne interference and reflex actions via neighboring organs and the central nervous system, the study was conducted in an in vitro isolated stomach-gastric vagus nerve preparation obtained from overnight-fasted, urethan-anesthetized rats. Afferent unit action potentials were recorded from the gastric branch of the vagus nerve. The left gastric artery was catheterized for intra-arterial injection. In vitro we found that 1) 55/70 gastric vagal afferents (GVAs) were polymodal, responding to CCK-8 and mechanical stimuli, 13 were mechanoreceptive, and 2 were CCK-responsive; 2) sequential or randomized intra-arterial injections of CCK-8 (0.1-200 pmol) dose-dependently increased firing rate and reached the peak rate at 100 pmol; 3) the action was suppressed by CCK-A (Devazepide) but not by CCK-B (L-365,260) receptor antagonist; 4) neither antagonist blocked the mechanosensitivity of GVA fibers. These results are consistent with corresponding in vivo well-documented findings. Histological data indicate that the layered structure of the stomach wall was preserved in vitro for 6-8 h. Based on these results, it seems reasonable to use the in vitro preparation for conducting a study that is usually difficult to be performed in vivo. For instance, because there was no blood supply in vitro, the composition of the interstitial fluid, i.e., the ambient nerve terminals, can be better controlled and influenced by intra-arterial injection of a defined solution. Here we report that acutely changing the ambient CCK level by a conditioning stimulus (a preceding intra-arterial injection of increasing doses of CCK-8) reduced the CCK sensitivity of GVA terminals to a subsequent test stimulus (a constant dose of CCK-8 intra-arterial injection).
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ABSTRACT: Interactions between gastrointestinal signals are a part of integrated systems regulating food intake (FI). We investi- gated whether cholecystokinin (CCK)-8 and urocortin sys- tems potentiate each other to inhibit FI and gastric emptying (GE) in fasted mice. Urocortin 1 and urocortin 2 (1g/kg) were injected ip alone or with CCK (3 g/kg) in lean, diet-induced obese (DIO) or corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-2 (CRF2)-deficient mice. Gastric vagal afferent activity was re- corded from a rat stomach-vagus in vitro preparation. When injected separately, urocortin 1, urocortin 2, or CCK did not modify the 4-h cumulative FI in lean mice. However, CCK plus urocortin 1 or CCK plus urocortin 2 decreased significantly the 4-h FI by 39 and 27%, respectively, compared with the vehicle vehicle group in lean mice but not in DIO mice. Likewise, CCK-urocortin-1 delayed GE in lean but not DIO mice, whereas either peptide injected alone at the same dose hadnoeffect.CCK-urocortin2suppressionofFIwasobserved in wild-type but not CRF2-deficient mice. Gastric vagal affer- ent activity was increased by intragastric artery injection of urocortin 2 after CCK at a subthreshold dose, and the re- sponse was reversed by devazepide. These data establish a peripheral synergistic interaction between CCK and urocor- tin 1 or urocortin 2 to suppress FI and GE through CRF2 receptor in lean mice that may involve CCK modulation of gastricvagalafferentresponsivenesstourocortin2.Suchsyn- ergy is lost in DIO mice, suggesting a resistance to the satiety signaling that may contribute to maintain obesity. (Endocri- nology 148: 6115-6123, 2007)Endocrinology 01/2007; 148(12):6115-6123. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ghrelin is a peptide predominantly produced by the stomach. Ghrelin displays strong GH-releasing activity. This activity is mediated by the activation of the so-called GH secretagogue receptor type 1a. This receptor had been shown to be specific for a family of synthetic, peptidyl and nonpeptidyl GH secretagogues. Apart from a potent GH-releasing action, ghrelin has other activities including stimulation of lactotroph and corticotroph function, influence on the pituitary gonadal axis, stimulation of appetite, control of energy balance, influence on sleep and behavior, control of gastric motility and acid secretion, and influence on pancreatic exocrine and endocrine function as well as on glucose metabolism. Cardiovascular actions and modulation of proliferation of neoplastic cells, as well as of the immune system, are other actions of ghrelin. Therefore, we consider ghrelin a gastrointestinal peptide contributing to the regulation of diverse functions of the gut-brain axis. So, there is indeed a possibility that ghrelin analogs, acting as either agonists or antagonists, might have clinical impact.Endocrine Reviews 07/2004; 25(3):426-57. · 14.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glucosensing nodose ganglia neurons mediate the effects of hyperglycemia on gastrointestinal motility. We hypothesized that the glucose-sensing mechanisms in the nodose ganglia are similar to those of hypothalamic glucose excited neurons, which sense glucose through glycolysis. Glucose metabolism leads to ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K(ATP)) channel closure and membrane depolarization. We identified glucosensing elements in the form of glucose transporters (GLUTs), glucokinase (GK), and K(ATP) channels in rat nodose ganglia and evaluated their physiological significance. In vitro stomach-vagus nerve preparations demonstrated the gastric vagal afferent response to elevated glucose. Western blots and RT-PCR revealed the presence of GLUT1, GLUT3, GLUT4, GK, and Kir6.2 in nodose ganglia neurons and gastric branches of the vagus nerve. Immunocytochemistry confirmed the expression of GLUT3, GK, and Kir6.2 in nodose ganglia neurons (46.3 ± 3%). Patch-clamp studies detected glucose excitation in 30% (25 of 83) of gastric-projecting nodose ganglia neurons, which was abolished by GLUT3 or GK short hairpin RNA transfections. Silencing GLUT1 or GLUT4 in nodose ganglia neurons did not prevent the excitatory response to glucose. Elevated glucose elicited a response from 43% of in vitro nerve preparations. A dose-dependent response was observed, reaching maximum at a glucose level of 250 mg/dl. The gastric vagal afferent responses to glucose were inhibited by diazoxide, a K(ATP) channel opener. In conclusion, a subset of neurons in the nodose ganglia and gastric vagal afferents are glucoresponsive. Glucosensing requires a GLUT, GK, and K(ATP) channels. These elements are transported axonally to the gastric vagal afferents, which can be activated by elevated glucose through modulation of K(ATP) channels.Endocrinology 12/2012; · 4.72 Impact Factor