Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of lenticular nuclei in simple schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT 1. The lenticula nuclei have been suggested to be the site of structural and functional abnormalities in schizophrenia. 2. Recently, several studies involving proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) showed that the ratio of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) to choline-containing compounds (Cho) was significantly reduced in the basal ganglia region in patients with schizophrenia. 3. Simple schizophrenia is characterized by social withdrawal and affective flattening, but not by prominent catatonic, hebephrenic or paranoid features. 4. We studied, using 1H MRS, the lenticula nuclei of 10 patients with simple schizophrenia, and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. 5. No differences between the patients and the controls were found in any of the measured ratios, i.e. Cho/Cr, NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho. 6. Our results suggest the normal viability of neuronal cells, as found on quantification of NAA, Cr and Cho, in the lenticular nuclei of patients with simple schizophrenia. 7. The pathophysiology of simple schizophrenia may be different from those of other types of schizophrenia.
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ABSTRACT: By reviewing the existing (1) H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy literature in schizophrenia, the relationship of different sample characteristics and applied methodologies with metabolite alterations is explored. Furthermore, we emphasize common pitfalls and discrepancies in the methodological framework of the reviewed studies that introduce unwanted variation in findings and complicate the comparison of studies. A total of 92 studies were reviewed. Articles were retrieved by searching the Pubmed database. Care was taken to note down reliability and validity measures of each included study. Despite many methodological differences and shortcomings, progressive NAA reductions could be seen in several brain regions implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. In terms of treatment effects, cross-sectional evidence implicates a normalizing role for atypical antipsychotic medication; however, longitudinal studies remain inconclusive on this issue. Choline, creatine and myo-inositol levels remain largely unchanged and a time-dependent role of glutamate finds confirmation in several spectroscopy studies. Other findings are less consistent and need further replication. Most studies lack power and methodological precision. Future studies should aim for standardization and for more distinguished study populations in order to gain more valid and reliable findings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Journal of Neurochemistry 08/2013; · 4.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IntroductionSince the first case descriptions of dementia praecox (Diem, 1903), the diagnosis of simple schizophrenia has continued to be controversial. The questioning of its descriptive validity and its reliability, as well as its infrequent use, has led to it being eliminated as a sub-type of schizophrenia in the DSM-III. Criteria for the diagnosis of «simple deteriorative disorder» are currently included in the DSM-IV-TR as a disorder requiring more studies for its possible inclusion.Revista de Psiquiatría Biológica y Salud Mental 01/2012; · 0.31 Impact Factor