Induction of COX-2 and PGE(2) biosynthesis by IL-1beta is mediated by PKC and mitogen-activated protein kinases in murine astrocytes.
ABSTRACT Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is an important mediator of immunoinflammatory responses in the brain. In the present study, we examined whether prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production after IL-1beta stimulation is dependent upon activation of protein kinases in astroglial cells. Astrocyte cultures stimulated with IL-1beta or the phorbol ester, PMA significantly increased PGE(2) secretion. The stimulatory action of IL-1beta on PGE(2) production was totally abolished by NS-398, a specific inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase-2 activity, as well as by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, and the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. Furthermore, IL-1beta induced the expression of COX-2 mRNA. This occurred early at 2 h, with a maximum at 4 h and declined at 12 h. IL-1 beta treatment also induced the expression of COX-2 protein as determined by immunoblot analysis. In that case the expression of the protein remained high at least up to 12 h. Treatment of cells with protein kinase C inhibitors (H-7, bisindolylmaleimide and calphostin C) inhibited IL-1beta stimulation of PGE(2). In addition, PKC-depleted astrocyte cultures by overnight treatment with PMA no longer responded to PMA or IL-1. The ablation of the effects of PMA and IL-1beta on PGE(2) production, likely results from down-regulation of phorbol ester sensitive-PKC isoenzymes. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated the translocation of the conventional isoform cPKC-alpha from cytosol to membrane following treatment with IL-1beta. In addition, IL-1beta treatment led to activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and p38 subgroups of MAP kinases in astroglial cells. Interestingly, the inhibition of ERK kinase with PD 98059, as well as the inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB 203580, prevented IL-1beta-induced PGE(2) release. ERK1/2 activation by IL-1beta was sensitive to inhibition by the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide suggesting that ERK phosphorylation is a downstream signal of PKC activation. These results suggest key roles for PKC as well as for ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase cascades in the biosynthesis of PGE(2), likely by regulating the induction of cyclo-oxygenase-2, in IL-1beta-stimulated astroglial cells.
Article: Pharmacological profile of SB 203580, a selective inhibitor of cytokine suppressive binding protein/p38 kinase, in animal models of arthritis, bone resorption, endotoxin shock and immune function.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: SB 203580 [4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4- pyridyl)imidazole], a selective cytokine suppressive binding protein/p38 kinase inhibitor, was evaluated in several models of cytokine inhibition and inflammatory disease. It was demonstrated clearly to be a potent inhibitor of inflammatory cytokine production in vivo in both mice and rats with IC50 values of 15 to 25 mg/kg. SB 203580 possessed therapeutic activity in collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/LACJ mice with a dose of 50 mg/kg resulting in significant inhibition of paw inflammation and serum amyloid protein levels. Antiarthritic activity was also observed in adjuvant-induced arthritis in the Lewis rat when SB 203580 was administered p.o. at 30 and 60 mg/kg. Evidence for disease-modifying activity in this model was indicated by an improvement in bone mineral density and by histological evaluation. Additional evidence for beneficial effects on bone resorption was provided in the fetal rat long bone assay in which SB 203580 inhibited 45Ca release with an IC50 of 0.6 microM. In keeping with the inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha in mice, SB 203580 was found to reduce mortality in a murine model of endotoxin-induced shock. In immune function studies in mice treated with SB 203580 (60 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks), there was some suppression of an antibody response to ovalbumin, whereas cellular immune functions measured ex vivo were unaffected. This novel profile of activity strongly suggests that cytokine inhibitors could provide significant benefit in the therapy of chronic inflammatory disease.Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 01/1997; 279(3):1453-61. · 3.83 Impact Factor
Article: Interleukin-1 beta increases prostaglandin E2 in rat astrocyte cultures: modulatory effect of neuropeptides.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recombinant human interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) significantly increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in a dose-dependent manner in rat astrocyte culture. The minimum effective dose of IL-1 beta was 10(-10)M. IL-1 alpha also increased PGE2, but at a higher concentration. The minimum effective dose of IL-1 alpha was 10(-8)M, indicating it to be 100-fold less effective than IL-1 beta. On the other hand neither IL-1 beta nor IL-1 alpha increased PGE2 production by neuron cultures at any concentration tested. PGE2 response to IL-1 beta was suppressed by simultaneous addition of CRH, somatostatin-14 and LHRH, while these neuropeptides alone did not alter the basal PGE2 levels. Substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and alpha-MSH altered neither basal nor IL-1 beta-induced increase in PGE2 levels. Angiotensin II (AII) alone also increased PGE2 in cultured astrocytes. Combined addition of AII and IL-1 beta induced a synergistic effect in increasing PGE2 levels. The direct action of IL-1 beta on astrocyte culture suggests that astrocytes may be the target cells for IL-1 beta in the central nervous system. In view of the essential role of central PGE2 in IL-1 beta-induced CRH/ACTH release, these findings suggest the presence of a sophisticated regulatory network in the immune-neuroendocrine interaction.Endocrinology 07/1989; 124(6):3125-7. · 4.46 Impact Factor
Article: PD 098059 is a specific inhibitor of the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase in vitro and in vivo.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: PD 098059 has been shown previously to inhibit the dephosphorylated form of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1 (MAPKK1) and a mutant MAPKK1(S217E,S221E), which has low levels of constitutive activity (Dudley, D. T., Pang, L., Decker, S. J., Bridges, A. J., and Saltiel, A. R. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92, 7686-7689). Here we report that PD 098059 does not inhibit Raf-activated MAPKK1 but that it prevents the activation of MAPKK1 by Raf or MEK kinase in vitro at concentrations (IC50 = 2-7 microM) similar to those concentrations that inhibit dephosphorylated MAPKK1 or MAPKK1(S217E,S221E). PD 098059 inhibited the activation of MAPKK2 by Raf with a much higher IC50 value (50 microM) and did not inhibit the phosphorylation of other Raf or MEK kinase substrates, indicating that it exerts its effect by binding to the inactive form of MAPKK1. PD 098059 also acts as a specific inhibitor of the activation of MAPKK in Swiss 3T3 cells, suppressing by 80-90% its activation by a variety of agonists. The high degree of specificity of PD 098059 in vitro and in vivo is indicated by its failure to inhibit 18 protein Ser/Thr kinases (including two other MAPKK homologues) in vitro by its failure to inhibit the in vivo activation of MAPKK and MAP kinase homologues that participate in stress and interleukin-1-stimulated kinase cascades in KB and PC12 cells, and by lack of inhibition of the activation of p70 S6 kinase by insulin or epidermal growth factor in Swiss 3T3 cells. PD 098059 (50 microM) inhibited the activation of p42MAPK and isoforms of MAP kinase-activated protein kinase-1 in Swiss 3T3 cells, but the extent of inhibition depended on how potently c-Raf and MAPKK were activated by any particular agonist and demonstrated the enormous amplification potential of this kinase cascade. PD 098059 not only failed to inhibit the activation of Raf by platelet-derived growth factor, serum, insulin, and phorbol esters in Swiss 3T3 cells but actually enhanced Raf activity. The rate of activation of Raf by platelet-derived growth factor was increased 3-fold, and the subsequent inactivation that occurred after 10 min was prevented. These results indicate that the activation of Raf is suppressed and that its inactivation is accelerated by a downstream component(s) of the MAP kinase pathway.Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/1995; 270(46):27489-94. · 4.77 Impact Factor