Putative role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathway in the survival of granulosa cells.
ABSTRACT Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is an important differentiation and survival factor for granulosa cells. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that IGF-I promotes survival of porcine granulosa cells by signaling through the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase/Akt signal transduction pathway. Treatment with IGF-I (100 ng/mL) for 10 min stimulated PI 3-kinase and Akt protein kinase activity. IGF-I stimulated the phosphorylation and activation of Akt in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The PI 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 blocked IGF-I induced increases in PI 3-kinase activity and phosphorylation of Akt. Additionally, IGF-I treatment prevented apoptosis. The survival response to IGF-I was blocked by treatment with either wortmannin or LY294002. These data suggest that IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of Akt is mediated through PI 3-kinase and that inactivation of this pathway results in granulosa cell apoptosis. We conclude that the PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling serves as a functional survival pathway in the ovary.
Article: Insulin-like growth factor-I induces the phosphorylation and nuclear exclusion of forkhead transcription factors in human neuroblastoma cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Akt-mediated phosphorylation of forkhead transcription factors is linked to growth factor-stimulated cell survival. We investigated whether the survival activity of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma (NBL) cells is associated with phosphorylation and/or localization changes in forkhead proteins. IGF-I induced phosphorylation of Erks (p42/p44), FKHR (FOXO1a) (Ser 253), FKHRL1 (FOXO3a) (Ser 256), and Akt (Ser 473). PI3-K inhibitor, LY294002, reduced IGF-I-stimulated phosphorylation of FKHR, FKHRL1, and Akt, but did not affect Erk phosphorylation. Using a GFP-FKHR construct, FKHR imported into the nucleus during growth factor withdrawal-induced apoptosis. In addition, IGF-I rescue from serum withdrawal-induced apoptosis is associated with a rapid export of GFP-FKHR into the cytoplasm. Leptomycin B, an inhibitor of Crm1-mediated nuclear export, decreased the level of FKHRL1 phosphorylation in the presence of IGF-I in vector and FKHR overexpressing cells, but had no effect on the phosphorylation status of FKHR. In addition, leptomycin B prevented IGF-I stimulated nuclear export of GFP-FKHR. These studies show IGF-I phosphorylation of FKHR and FKHRL1 via a PI3-K-dependent pathway in NBL cells.APOPTOSIS 09/2005; 10(4):831-40. · 4.79 Impact Factor
Article: Follicle Stimulating Hormone-Induced DNA Synthesis in the Granulosa Cells of Hamster Preantral Follicles Involves Activation of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase-4 Rather Than Cyclin D2 Synthesis1[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although cyclin D2 mRNA synthesis precedes gonadotropin-induced DNA synthesis in quiescent granulosa cells in culture, it is unclear whether a similar mechanism exists for the granulosa cells of growing preantral follicles in cyclic animals. The objective was to evaluate whether the synthesis of cyclin D2 protein was a prerequisite for FSH-induced DNA synthesis in the granulosa cells of intact preantral follicles of cyclic hamsters. Preantral follicles from cyclic hamsters were cultured in the presence or absence of FSH, and cell cycle parameters were examined. FSH stimulated cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-4 activity by 2 h and DNA synthesis by 4 h without altering the levels of cyclin D2 in the granulosa cells. The FSH effect was mimicked by epidermal growth factor administered in vivo. Although FSH increased the levels of cyclin D2 mRNA, it also stimulated the degradation of cyclin D2 as well as p27Kip1 and p19INK4 proteins. FSH activation of CDK4 was mediated by cAMP and ERK-1/2. In contrast to granulosa cells in intact follicles, FSH or cAMP significantly increased cyclin D2 protein levels in cultured granulosa cells but failed to induce DNA synthesis. Collectively, these data suggest that granulosa cells of preantral follicles, which are destined to enter the S phase during the estrous cycle, contain necessary amounts of cyclin D2 and other G1 phase components. FSH stimulation results in the formation and activation of the cyclin D2/CDK4 complex leading to DNA synthesis. This mechanism may be necessary for rapid movement of follicles from preantral to antral stages during the short duration of the murine estrous cycle.Biology of Reproduction 09/2009; · 4.01 Impact Factor
Article: Expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins alpha and beta in the porcine ovary and regulation in primary cultures of granulosa cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins alpha and beta (CEBPA/ CEBPB) were evaluated in the porcine ovary during the estrous cycle. CEBPB mRNA was present in antral follicles and was significantly increased in healthy corpora lutea (CL), whereas CEBPA mRNA was constitutively expressed in these structures. Both isoforms of CEBPA (42 and 30 kDa) exhibited greater expression in preovulatory follicles, and the 42-kDa isoform increased in CL, whereas the 30-kDa isoform decreased. All major isoforms of CEBPB (38, 34, and 20 kDa) were expressed, with the 34- and 20-kDa isoforms being more abundant in preovulatory follicles and further increased in CL. The effects of FSH and cAMP analogue on the distribution of CEBP isoforms were evaluated in primary cultures of porcine granulosa cells. FSH and 8-Br-cAMP had little stimulatory effect on isoform distribution, but cAMP treatment for 24 h tended to decrease the 30-kDa form of CEBPA and the 34-kDa form of CEBPB. The 34-kDa form of CEBPB was decreased by the protein kinase A inhibitor H89 at 4 h (with FSH treatment), and by both protein kinase A and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors at 24 h of treatment. In transfected granulosa cells, FSH and cAMP analogue stimulated a CEBP consensus sequence-reporter construct that was blocked by H89. These data implicate protein kinase A as the major regulator of CEBPB isoform distribution and CEBP-mediated transactivation in granulosa cells. The differential expression of specific CEBPA/B isoforms observed in maturing follicles and CL may contribute to changes in follicular cell differentiation and increasing steroidogenic capacity.Biology of Reproduction 06/2005; 72(5):1194-204. · 4.01 Impact Factor