Fear memories require protein synthesis in the amygdala for reconsolidation after retrieval.
ABSTRACT 'New' memories are initially labile and sensitive to disruption before being consolidated into stable long-term memories. Much evidence indicates that this consolidation involves the synthesis of new proteins in neurons. The lateral and basal nuclei of the amygdala (LBA) are believed to be a site of memory storage in fear learning. Infusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin into the LBA shortly after training prevents consolidation of fear memories. Here we show that consolidated fear memories, when reactivated during retrieval, return to a labile state in which infusion of anisomycin shortly after memory reactivation produces amnesia on later tests, regardless of whether reactivation was performed 1 or 14 days after conditioning. The same treatment with anisomycin, in the absence of memory reactivation, left memory intact. Consistent with a time-limited role for protein synthesis production in consolidation, delay of the infusion until six hours after memory reactivation produced no amnesia. Our data show that consolidated fear memories, when reactivated, return to a labile state that requires de novo protein synthesis for reconsolidation. These findings are not predicted by traditional theories of memory consolidation.
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ABSTRACT: Retrieval of a consolidated memory triggers a number of processes which depend, among other factors, on the duration of the reactivation session: reconsolidation requires a brief reactivation session, and extinction, a prolonged one. The scope of this study is to explore the potential role of the hippocampal endocannabinoid system on reconsolidation and extinction processes. Bilateral infusion of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2, 4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM251) into the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus of Wistar rats after memory reactivation facilitated the reconsolidation of the contextual fear conditioning memory. The inhibition of protein synthesis with DRB in the same brain region blocked memory reconsolidation. Both effects were persistent, lasting up to 7 days after the first retrieval experience. In contrast, the local infusion of anandamide blocked memory reconsolidation, an effect that was antagonized by the combined administration of anandamide with a subthreshold dose of a CB1 antagonist, supporting a CB1-mediated role of the hippocampal endocannabinoid system in the modulation of the memory reconsolidation. Local infusion of AM251 into CA1 blocked memory extinction whereas the administration of anandamide facilitated it; however, when combined with a subthreshold concentration of the CB1 antagonist, anandamide did not affect the extinction process. The clear-cut, opposite effects observed in each situation suggest a possible role of the hippocampal endocannabinoid system as a switching mechanism deciding which processes will take place, either maintaining the original memory (reconsolidation) or promoting a new learning (extinction).Neuroscience 08/2008; 154(4):1648-55. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.05.005 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Combining memory retrieval with the application of a protein synthesis-inhibitor leads to an amnestic effect that is referred to as the reconsolidation phenomenon. Several behavioural studies demonstrate that only a few or weak retrieval trials (that do not result in significant extinction) lead to this phenomenon. In contrast, many trials (that result in significant extinction) combined with a protein synthesis inhibitor result in an inhibition of the extinction memory. Based on these findings it was suggested that extinction is the boundary condition for reconsolidation: when extinction is induced the consolidation of the extinction memory is the dominant process. Recently we were not able to confirm this hypothesis in the honeybee (Apis mellifera): we did not find the reconsolidation phenomenon after one retrieval trial, but demonstrated reconsolidation after five retrieval trials that led to extinction. To exclude that this observation resembles a special case in insects we here wanted to know if one retrieval trial induces reconsolidation as it has been demonstrated before in many other species. To do so we used experimental parameters that had been used before to demonstrate consolidation in the honeybee with the exception that this time the protein synthesis-inhibitor was applied 1 h after one memory retrieval instead after acquisition. We thereby demonstrate the reconsolidation phenomenon after one retrieval trial but only when using the doubled dose of protein synthesis-inhibitor that has been used to inhibit consolidation.Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 06/2008; 89(4):419-25. DOI:10.1016/j.nlm.2007.10.003 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This is a selective review of the literature concerning the effects of antidepressant drugs on animal memory, which was performed with the aid of the PubMed database. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors tend to either have no effect on memory or result in its improvement. Studies with cyclic antidepressants have reported no effect or, more often, memory impairments. Pre-training administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been shown to have either no effect on memory or undermine it (with some isolated exceptions, in which improvements have been recorded), while post-training administration of SSRIs has been demonstrated to improve memory or have no effect. A small group formed by the remaining antidepressants has been shown to improve memory, with the exception of trazodone, which impairs memory. These findings are discussed in the light of knowledge regarding the actions of antidepressants on several neurotransmission systems. The possibility that the effects of antidepressants on memory are the core of the therapeutic effects of these drugs is also considered.European Neuropsychopharmacology 05/2008; 18(4):235-48. DOI:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2007.07.001 · 5.40 Impact Factor