Longitudinal investigation of exposure to arsenic, cadmium, and lead in drinking water.

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
Environmental Health Perspectives (Impact Factor: 7.03). 08/2000; 108(8):731-5. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.00108731
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Arsenic, cadmium, and lead have been associated with various forms of cancer, nephrotoxicity, central nervous system effects, and cardiovascular disease in humans. Drinking water is a well-recognized pathway of exposure to these metals. To improve understanding of the temporal dimension of exposure to As, Cd, and Pb in drinking water, we obtained 381 samples of tap and/or tap/filtered water and self-reported rates of drinking water consumption from 73 members of a stratified random sample in Maryland. Data were collected at approximately 2-month intervals from September 1995 through September 1996. Concentrations of As (range < 0.2-13.8 microg/L) and Pb (< 0.1-13.4 microg/L) were within the ranges reported for the United States, as were the rates of drinking water consumption (median < 0.1-4.1 L/day). Cd was present at a detectable level in only 8.1% of the water samples. Mean log-transformed concentrations and exposures for As and Pb varied significantly among sampling cycles and among respondents, as did rates of drinking water consumption, according to a generalized linear model that accounted for potential correlation among repeated measures from the same respondent. We used the intraclass correlation coefficient of reliability to attribute the total variance observed for each exposure metric to between-person and within-person variability. Between-person variability was estimated to account for 67, 81, and 55% of the total variance in drinking water consumption, As exposure (micrograms per day), and Pb exposure (micrograms per day), respectively. We discuss these results with respect to their implications for future exposure assessment research, quantitative risk assessment, and environmental epidemiology.

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    ABSTRACT: The monitoring and assessment of water has become an environmental concern due to contamination caused by man-kind. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the levels of As and some other heavy metals in the pre and post treated water of the projects in Duhok province and to assess the efficiency of these water projects for filtration and purification of drinking water in terms of potentially toxic metals. This study coveres the water purification projects of the entire Duhok governorate areas (Semel, Chambarkat, Zakho, Akre, Shekhan and Amedy). Water samples were collected monthly from August 2008 to July 2009. The results indicated that the As concentration in pretreated water from the Duhok and zakho water project was higher than the WHO guide lines for drinking water (10µg.L-1), whereas in the treated water from the Duhok project its concentration remains above guideline levels. Other metals such as Cd, Pb and Ni at all of the studied projects were higher than the permissible limits in both pre and post treated water, according to the WHO guideline values (3,10 and 20 µg.L-1) respectively, while Cr and Zn were lower than the permissible limit. The values of combined HQ were >1 for all PTEs in drinking water of Duhok, Chamberkat, Zakho and Amedy samples indicating health hazards for the local population. To conclude, the consumption of drinking water may pose high risk to the local population.
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    International Journal of Morphology 09/2013; 31(3):1012-1019. DOI:10.4067/S0717-95022013000300039 · 0.20 Impact Factor

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