Nose-rings and transmission of helminth parasites in outdoor pigs.
ABSTRACT Five growing pigs experimentally infected with low doses of Oesophagostomum dentatum, Ascaris suum, and Trichuris suis were turned out with 5 helminth-naïve pigs on each of 3 pastures in June 1996 (Group 1). On one pasture all pigs received nose-rings. After slaughter of Group 1 in October, pasture infectivity was monitored using helminth-naïve, unringed tracer pigs. In 1997, helminth-naïve young pigs were turned out on the contaminated pastures in May (Group 2) and again in August (Group 3). Again all pigs on one pasture received nose-rings. All pigs and pastures were followed parasitologically and reduction in grass cover was monitored. Based on the acquisition of infection by the naïve pigs in Group 1, the estimated minimal embryonation times for eggs deposited on pasture were 23-25 days for O. dentatum, 5-6 weeks for A. suum and 9-10 weeks for T. suis. Results from tracer pigs and grass/soil samples indicated that pasture infectivity was light both years. Free-living stages of O. dentatum did not survive the winter. The nose-rings reduced rooting considerably, resulting in three-fold more grass cover on the nose-ring pasture compared to the control pastures by the end of the experiment. Nevertheless, the nose-rings did not significantly influence parasite transmission.
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ABSTRACT: The transmission of Ascaris suum was studied in outdoor reared pigs. From May to June 2001, 6 farrowing paddocks were naturally contaminated with A. suum using experimentally infected seeder pigs. Early July, 1 sow farrowed on each paddock. One piglet per litter was slaughtered every second week starting at week 3 post-partum (p.p.) for registration of liver white spots and recovery of A. suum from the lungs and the small intestine. The last pigs were slaughtered at week 19 p.p. Faeces was examined for parasite eggs and blood was analysed for A. suum-specific antibodies. Weaning took place at week 7 p.p. by removing the sow. Paddock infection levels were estimated by regular examination of soil samples and in late June and late November using parasite naïve tracer pigs. Paddock contamination was high but eggs developed slowly resulting in a low initial transmission to the experimental pigs. By week 5 p.p. transmission had increased and the numbers of infective eggs in the soil increased during the study. The results indicate a continuous uptake of infective eggs, but visceral larval migration was reduced with time, probably due to the development of a pre-hepatic barrier. Nevertheless, a rather large population of adult worms remained in the pigs throughout the study, and it may primarily have been eggs ingested in the early infection phase that gave rise to the patent infections. It is suggested that neonatal exposure may result in increased persistence and size of adult worm burden and that the higher 'life-time worm burden' may be of significant economic importance.Parasitology 10/2006; 133(Pt 3):305-12. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transmission of Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichuris suis was studied in outdoor reared pigs. Six farrowing paddocks were naturally contaminated in May to mid-June 2001 by experimentally infected seeder pigs. In early July 1 sow farrowed on each paddock and starting at week 3 post-partum (p.p.) the offspring was slaughtered serially every 2 weeks for parasite recovery. Faeces were collected regularly for parasite egg counts and acid-insoluble ash (AIA) content as an indicator of geophagy. Weaning took place at week 7 p.p. by removing the sow. Paddock infection levels were estimated in mid-June (O. dentatum) and late November (O. dentatum and T. suis) using helminth-naïve tracer pigs. Soil and vegetation samples were collected regularly. Despite a high initial contamination by the seeder pigs, O. dentatum paddock infectivity was negligible to low throughout the raising of the experimental piglets, which had a slow accumulation of nodular worms ending with a mean of 422 worms/pig at week 19 p.p. As only few eggs developed to infectivity overall T. suis transmission was minimal. The first T. suis were recovered at week 11 p.p. and the highest mean burden of 21 worms/pig was recorded at week 19 p.p. The experimental pigs initially had a high faecal level of AIA although it decreased over time. The results are discussed in relation to the biological characteristics of the 2 parasites and their occurrence in organic pig production.Parasitology 10/2006; 133(Pt 3):295-304. · 2.36 Impact Factor