Identification of potent, selective non-peptide CC chemokine receptor-3 antagonist that inhibits eotaxin-, eotaxin-2-, and monocyte chemotactic protein-4-induced eosinophil migration.
ABSTRACT Eosinophils have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases. Several CC chemokines including eotaxin (CCL-11), eotaxin-2 (CCL-24), RANTES (CCL-5), and monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3, CCL-7) and 4 (MCP-4, CCL-13) are potent eosinophil chemotactic and activating peptides acting through CC chemokine receptor-3 (CCR3). Thus, antagonism of CCR3 could have a therapeutic role in asthma and other eosinophil-mediated diseases. A high throughput, cellular functional screen was configured using RBL-2H3 cells stably expressing CCR3 (RBL-2H3-CCR3) to identify non-peptide receptor antagonists. A small molecule CCR3 antagonist was identified, SK&F 45523, and chemical optimization led to the generation of a number of highly potent, selective CCR3 antagonists including SB-297006 and SB-328437. These compounds were further characterized in vitro and demonstrated high affinity, competitive inhibition of (125)I-eotaxin and (125)I-MCP-4 binding to human eosinophils. The compounds were potent inhibitors of eotaxin- and MCP-4-induced Ca(2+) mobilization in RBL-2H3-CCR3 cells and eosinophils. Additionally, SB-328437 inhibited eosinophil chemotaxis induced by three ligands that activate CCR3 with similar potencies. Selectivity was affirmed using a panel of 10 seven-transmembrane receptors. This is the first description of a non-peptide CCR3 antagonist, which should be useful in further elucidating the pathophysiological role of CCR3 in allergic inflammatory diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Chemokines are the largest family of cytokines in human immunophysiology. These proteins are defined by four invariant cysteines and are categorized based on the sequence around the first two cysteines, which leads to two major and two minor subfamilies. Chemokines function by activating specific G protein-coupled receptors, which results in, among other functions, the migration of inflammatory and noninflammatory cells to the appropriate tissues or compartments within tissues. Some of these proteins and receptors have been implicated or shown to be involved in inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and infection by HIV-1. The three-dimensional structure of each monomer is virtually identical, but the quaternary structure of chemokines is different for each subfamily. Structure-function studies reveal several regions of chemokines to be involved in function, with the N-terminal region playing a dominant role. A number of proteins and small-molecule antagonists have been identified that inhibit chemokine activities. In this review, we discuss aspects of the structure, function, and inhibition of chemokines.Annual Review of Pharmacology 02/2002; 42:469-99. · 21.64 Impact Factor