Remapping of the RP15 locus for X-linked cone-rod degeneration to Xp11.4-p21.1, and identification of a de novo insertion in the RPGR exon ORF15.
ABSTRACT X-linked forms of retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) are among the most severe, because of their early onset, often leading to significant vision loss before the 4th decade. Previously, the RP15 locus was assigned to Xp22, by linkage analysis of a single pedigree with "X-linked dominant cone-rod degeneration." After clinical reevaluation of a female in this pedigree identified her as affected, we remapped the disease to a 19.5-cM interval (DXS1219-DXS993) at Xp11.4-p21.1. This new interval overlapped both RP3 (RPGR) and COD1. Sequencing of the previously published exons of RPGR revealed no mutations, but a de novo insertion was detected in the new RPGR exon, ORF15. The identification of an RPGR mutation in a family with a severe form of cone and rod degeneration suggests that RPGR mutations may encompass a broader phenotypic spectrum than has previously been recognized in "typical" retinitis pigmentosa.
Article: Identification of novel mutations in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa families and implications for diagnostic testing.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to identify mutations in X-chromosomal genes associated with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in patients from Germany, The Netherlands, Denmark, and Switzerland. In addition to all coding exons of RP2, exons 1 through 15, 9a, ORF15, 15a and 15b of RPGR were screened for mutations. PCR products were amplified from genomic DNA extracted from blood samples and analyzed by direct sequencing. In one family with apparently dominant inheritance of RP, linkage analysis identified an interval on the X chromosome containing RPGR, and mutation screening revealed a pathogenic variant in this gene. Patients of this family were examined clinically and by X-inactivation studies. This study included 141 RP families with possible X-chromosomal inheritance. In total, we identified 46 families with pathogenic sequence alterations in RPGR and RP2, of which 17 mutations have not been described previously. Two of the novel mutations represent the most 3'-terminal pathogenic sequence variants in RPGR and RP2 reported to date. In exon ORF15 of RPGR, we found eight novel and 14 known mutations. All lead to a disruption of open reading frame. Of the families with suggested X-chromosomal inheritance, 35% showed mutations in ORF15. In addition, we found five novel mutations in other exons of RPGR and four in RP2. Deletions in ORF15 of RPGR were identified in three families in which female carriers showed variable manifestation of the phenotype. Furthermore, an ORF15 mutation was found in an RP patient who additionally carries a 6.4 kbp deletion downstream of the coding region of exon ORF15. We did not identify mutations in 39 sporadic male cases from Switzerland. RPGR mutations were confirmed to be the most frequent cause of RP in families with an X-chromosomal inheritance pattern. We propose a screening strategy to provide molecular diagnostics in these families.Molecular vision 02/2008; 14:1081-93. · 2.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mutations in the RPGR gene predominantly cause rod photoreceptor disorders with a large variability in clinical course. In this report, we describe two families with mutations in this gene and cone involvement. We investigated an X-linked cone dystrophy family (1) with 25 affected males, 25 female carriers, and 21 non-carriers, as well as a small family (2) with one affected and one unaffected male. The RPGR gene was analyzed by direct sequencing. All medical records were evaluated, and all available data on visual acuity, color vision testing, ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, Goldmann perimetry, SD-OCT, dark adaptation, and full-field electroretinography (ERG) were registered. Cumulative risks of visual loss were studied with Kaplan-Meier product-limit survival analysis. Both families had a frameshift mutation in ORF15 of the RPGR gene; family 1 had p.Ser1107ValfsX4, and family 2 had p.His1100GlnfsX10. Mean follow up was 13 years (SD 10). Virtually all affected males showed reduced photopic and normal scotopic responses on ERG. Fifty percent of the patients had a visual acuity of <0.5 at age 35 years (SE 2.2), and 75% of the patients was legally blind at age 60 years (SE 2.3). Female carriers showed no signs of ocular involvement. This report describes the clinical course and visual prognosis in two families with cone dystrophy due to RPGR mutations in the 3' terminal region of ORF15. Remarkable features were the consistent, late-onset phenotype, the severe visual outcome, and the non-expression in female carriers. Expression of RPGR mutations in this particular region appears to be relatively homogeneous and predisposed to cones.Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie 08/2011; 249(10):1527-35. · 2.17 Impact Factor
Article: Prevalence of disease-causing mutations in families with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa: a screen of known genes in 200 families.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To survey families with clinical evidence of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) for mutations in genes known to cause adRP. Two hundred adRP families, drawn from a cohort of more than 400 potential families, were selected by analysis of pedigrees. Minimum criteria for inclusion in the adRP cohort included either evidence of at least three generations of affected individuals or two generations with evidence of male-to-male transmission. Probands from each family were screened for mutations in 13 genes known to cause adRP: CA4, CRX, FSCN2, IMPDH1, NRL, PRPF3 (RP18), PRPF8 (RP13), PRPF31 (RP11), RDS, RHO, ROM1, RP1, and RP9. Families without mutations in autosomal genes and in which an X-linked mode of inheritance could not be excluded were tested for mutations in ORF 15 of X-linked RPGR. Potentially pathogenic variants were evaluated based on a variety of genetic and computational criteria, to confirm or exclude pathogenicity. A total of 82 distinct, rare (nonpolymorphic) variants were detected among the genes tested. Of these, 57 are clearly pathogenic based on multiple criteria, 10 are probably pathogenic, and 15 are probably benign. In the cohort of 200 families, 94 (47%) have one of the clearly pathogenic variants and 10 (5%) have one of the probably pathogenic variants. One family (0.5%) has digenic RDS-ROM1 mutations. Two families (1%) have a pathogenic RPGR mutation, indicating that families with apparent autosomal transmission of RP may actually have X-linked genetic disease. Thus, 107 families (53.5%) have mutations in known genes, leaving 93 whose underlying cause is still unknown. Together, the known adRP genes account for retinal disease in approximately half of the families in this survey, mostly Americans of European origin. Among the adRP genes, IMPDH1, PRPF8, PRPF31, RDS, RHO, and RP1 each accounts for more than 2% of the total; CRX, PRPF3, and RPGR each accounts for roughly 1%. Disease-causing mutations were not found in CA4, FSCN2, NRL, or RP9. Because some mutations are frequent and some regions are more likely to harbor mutations than others, more than two thirds of the detected mutations can be found by screening less than 10% of the total gene sequences. Among the remaining families, mutations may lie in regions of known genes that were not tested, mutations may not be detectable by PCR-based sequencing, or other loci may be involved.Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 08/2006; 47(7):3052-64. · 3.60 Impact Factor