Heat stress downregulates TCR zeta chain expression in human T lymphocytes.
ABSTRACT After heat treatment, human T lymphocytes downregulate the T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD3-mediated [Ca(2+)](i) response and production of inositol triphosphate. Here we demonstrate that heat treatment of T lymphocytes at sublethal temperature decreases the expression of TCR zeta chain, which plays a critical role in the regulation of TCR/CD3-mediated signal transduction. Downregulation of TCR zeta chain in heat-treated T cells was observed at 8 h and reached a maximum at 16 h. Under these conditions, the expression of CD3 epsilon or TCR alphabeta chains was minimally affected. Consistent with the decrease in TCR zeta chain, a reduction in the level of TCR/CD3 induced tyrosine phosphorylation of several cellular protein substrates, and a delay in the kinetics of peak tyrosine phosphorylation was observed in heat-treated T cells. Interestingly, analysis of the TCR zeta chain content in the detergent-insoluble membrane fraction showed that heat treatment induces translocation of soluble TCR zeta chain to the cell membranes. In addition, the mRNA level of TCR zeta chain was reduced in heat-treated T cells. Correlative with the downregulation of TCR zeta chain mRNA, the level of the TCR zeta chain transcription factor Elf-1 was also reduced in heat-treated cells. We conclude that heat stress causes a decrease in the level of TCR zeta chain by increasing its association with the membranes and decreasing the transcription of the TCR zeta gene. Decreased expression of the TCR zeta chain is apparently responsible for the decreased TCR/CD3 responses of T cells.
Article: Surface T-cell antigen receptor expression and availability for long-term antigenic signaling.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It is important to understand how T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) engagement and signaling are regulated throughout an immune response. This review examines the dynamics of surface TCR expression and signaling capacity during thymic and effector T-cell development. Although the TCR can undergo vast changes in surface expression, T cells remain capable of sustaining TCR engagement for long periods of time. This may be achieved by a combination of mechanisms that involve (a) controlling the quantity of surface TCR available for ligand interaction and (b) controlling the quality of surface TCR expression during T-cell activation. TCR signaling itself appears to be one of the main quantitative modulators of surface TCR expression, and it can cause both downregulation and upregulation at different times of T-cell activation. Recent studies indicate that the degree of upregulation is tunable by the strength of antigenic stimulation. There is evidence that qualitatively distinct forms of the TCR exist, and their potential role in sustained antigenic signaling is also discussed. A goal of future studies will be to better characterize these modulations in surface TCR expression and to clarify their impact on the regulation of immune responses.Immunological Reviews 01/2004; 196:7-24. · 11.15 Impact Factor