The forces in the anterior cruciate ligament and knee kinematics during a simulated pivot shift test: A human cadaveric study using robotic technology.
ABSTRACT Although it is well known that the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a primary restraint of the knee under anterior tibial load, the role of the ACL in resisting internal tibial torque and the pivot shift test is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of these 2 external loading conditions on the kinematics of the intact and ACL-deficient knee and the in situ force in the ACL.
This study was a biomechanical study that used cadaveric knees with the intact knee of the specimen serving as a control.
Twelve human cadaveric knees were tested using a robotic/universal force-moment sensor testing system. This system applied (1) a 10-Newton meter (Nm) internal tibial torque and (2) a combined 10-Nm valgus and 10-Nm internal tibial torque (simulated pivot shift test) to the intact and the ACL-deficient knee.
In the ACL-deficient knee, the isolated internal tibial torque significantly increased coupled anterior tibial translation over that of the intact knee by 94%, 48%, and 19% at full extension, 15 degrees, and 30 degrees of flexion, respectively (P <.05). In the case of the simulated pivot shift test, there were similar increases in anterior tibial translation, i.e., 103%, 61%, and 32%, respectively (P <.05). Furthermore, the anterior tibial translation under the simulated pivot shift test was significantly greater than under an isolated internal tibial torque (P <.05). Under the simulated pivot shift test, the in situ forces in the ACL were 83 +/- 16 N at full extension and 93 +/- 23 N at 15 degrees of knee flexion. These forces were also significantly higher when compared with those for an isolated internal tibial torque (P <.05).
Our data indicate that the ACL plays an important role in restraining coupled anterior tibial translation in response to the simulated pivot shift test as well as under an isolated internal tibial torque, especially when the knee is near extension. These findings are also consistent with the clinical observation of anterior tibial subluxation during the pivot shift test with the knee near extension.
EMC - Kinesitherapie 01/2010; 31(4):1-16.
Article: Comparison between clinical grading and navigation data of knee laxity in ACL-deficient knees.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The latest version of the navigation system for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has the supplementary ability to assess knee stability before and after ACL reconstruction. In this study, we compared navigation data between clinical grades in ACL-deficient knees and also analyzed correlation between clinical grading and navigation data. 150 ACL deficient knees that received primary ACL reconstruction using an image-free navigation system were included. For clinical evaluation, the Lachman, anterior drawer, and pivot shift tests were performed under general anesthesia and were graded by an examiner. For the assessment of knee stability using the navigation system, manual tests were performed again before ACL reconstruction. Navigation data were recorded as anteroposterior (AP) displacement of the tibia for the Lachman and anterior drawer tests, and both AP displacement and tibial rotation for the pivot shift test. Navigation data of each clinical grade were as follows; Lachman test grade 1+: 10.0 mm, grade 2+: 13.2 ± 3.1 mm, grade 3+: 14.5 ± 3.3 mm, anterior drawer test grade 1+: 6.8 ± 1.4 mm, grade 2+: 7.4 ± 1.8 mm, grade 3+: 9.1 ± 2.3 mm, pivot shift test grade 1+: 3.9 ± 1.8 mm/21.5° ± 7.8°, grade 2+: 4.8 ± 2.1 mm/21.8° ± 7.1°, and grade 3+: 6.0 ± 3.2 mm/21.1° ± 7.1°. There were positive correlations between clinical grading and AP displacement in the Lachman, and anterior drawer tests. Although positive correlations between clinical grading and AP displacement in pivot shift test were found, there were no correlations between clinical grading and tibial rotation in pivot shift test. In response to AP force, the navigation system can provide the surgeon with correct objective data for knee laxity in ACL deficient knees. During the pivot shift test, physicians may grade according to the displacement of the tibia, rather than rotation.Sports Medicine Arthroscopy Rehabilitation Therapy & Technology 11/2010; 2:27.
Article: Rééducation non agressive après plastie isolée du ligament croisé postérieur : est-ce la solution ?Revue de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique 05/2010; 96(3):306-312.