Propranolol diminishes cardiac hypertrophy but does not abolish acceleration of the ischemic contracture in hyperthyroid hearts.
ABSTRACT This study was undertaken to define the contributions of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and increased adrenergic activity to the acceleration of ischemic contracture (IC) that occurs in chronic hyperthyroid rat heart. Acute and chronic hyperthyroidism (THYR) were induced by thyroxine administration for 2 and 14 days, respectively, and normal animals (NORM) served as controls. Isolated hearts were perfused in a Langendorff mode. NORM alpha acute, n = 6; THYR alpha acute, n = 8; and THYR alpha, n = 13; and NORM alpha, n = 13 were subjected to 20-min zero-flow global ischemia (I) and 45-min reperfusion (R). Additional THYR and NORM hearts treated with propranolol (prop) were subjected to 30-min I; THYR beta prop, n = 6 and NORM beta prop, n = 8, and THYR beta, n = 6, NORM beta, n = 8 served as controls. Acceleration of IC was measured by the time to peak contracture (Tmax). Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was assessed by the ratio of left ventricular weight in milligrams (LVW) to animal body weight (BW) in grams. Cardiac hypertrophy developed in chronic but not acute hyperthyroidism. Propranolol reduced the extent of LVH. Contracture occurred earlier in chronic than in acute hyperthyroid and normal hearts. Propranolol did not alter contracture. In conclusion, IC is accelerated by thyroxine administration, and this is probably not due to LVH or increased beta-adrenergic activity. Propranolol diminishes LVH in hyperthyroidism.
- The American Journal of Medicine 03/1984; 76(2):167-72. · 4.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There are conflicting data on the effect of thyroid hormones on nitrogen metabolism. We determined the basal blood amino nitrogen (amino-N) concentrations, the urea nitrogen (urea-N) synthesis rate and the maximum hepatic capacity of urea nitrogen synthesis during saturating infusion of alanine, in moderately acutely (24 h) and chronically (7 days) hyperthyroid rats and compared this with changes in organ nitrogen contents in muscles and kidney, nitrogen excretion and nitrogen balance. Forty-three rats were made acutely hyperthyroid through administration of 5 microg 100 g(-1) triiodothyronine twice daily (T3: 2.2 +/- 0.7 vs. 0.87 +/- 0.04 nmol L(-1), P < 0.01). Fifty-one rats were made chronically hyperthyroid through administration of 12.5 microg 100 g(-1) thyroxine twice daily (T3: 2.63 +/- 0.18 vs. 0.87 +/- 0.04 nmol L(-1), P < 0.01). Weight gain was halved in this group. Both acute and chronic hyperthyroidism increased basal blood amino-N concentration in both groups by 16% (4.5 +/- 0.15 vs. 3.9 +/- 0.13 mmol L(-1) and 4.7 +/- 0.12 vs. 3.9 +/- 0.13 mmol L(-1), respectively, P < 0.01), and decreased basal urea-N synthesis rate in both groups by 30% [2.7 +/- 0.3 vs. 4.1 +/- 0.3 micromol (min x 100 g)(-1) and 3.1 +/- 0.3 vs. 4.1 +/- 0.3 micromol (min x 100g)(-1), respectively, P < 0.01]. The capacity of urea-N synthesis during saturation fell in both groups by 35% compared with controls [6.5 +/- 0.4 vs. 9.3 +/- 0.5 micromol (min x 100 g)(-1) and 5.7 +/- 0.5 vs. 9.3 +/- 0.6 micromol (min x 100g)(-1), respectively, P < 0.01]. Nitrogen contents in the muscles, soleus and extensor digitorum longus, of chronically hyperthyroid rats decreased by 22% and 11%, respectively, whereas kidney N-content increased by 12% (P < 0.05). N-balance and urinary urea-N excretion fell by 30%, whereas faeces-N excretion increased by 80% in hyperthyroid rats. Overall liver function assessed by galactose elimination capacity did not differ among groups. Both acute and chronic moderate hyperthyroidism increase blood amino-N and decrease basal and maximum rate of urea formation. Furthermore, chronic hyperthyroidism reduces N-contents of muscles, urinary urea-N excretion and N-balance. Thyroid hormones thus mobilize muscle-N, whereas amino-N in the liver is spared from irretrievable conversion into urea.European Journal of Clinical Investigation 01/1997; 27(1):85-92. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to determine whether 1) like ischemic preconditioning, transient exposure to norepinephrine before ischemia exacerbates contracture during ischemia and 2) protection afforded by norepinephrine is stereospecific (receptor mediated). Isolated perfused rat hearts were randomized into five groups (n = 6/group): 1) ischemic preconditioning (3 min of ischemia + 3 min of reperfusion + 5 min of ischemia + 5 min of reperfusion), 2) untreated control, 3) vehicle control (ascorbic acid), 4) substitution of preconditioning ischemia by perfusion with d-norepinephrine, and 5) substitution of preconditioning ischemia by perfusion with l-norepinephrine. This was followed by 40 min of zero-flow ischemia and 50 min of reperfusion. Ischemic preconditioning and l-norepinephrine exacerbated contracture (time to 50% contracture = 9.2 +/- 1.1 and 9.0 +/- 1.1 vs. 13.3 +/- 0.3, 12.4 +/- 0.5, and 13.2 +/- 0.4 min for untreated control, vehicle control, and d-norepinephrine, respectively, P < 0.05). Postischemic left ventricular developed pressure was poor in untreated control (23.0 +/- 2.2%), vehicle control (26.9 +/- 2.3%), and d-norepinephrine (19.8 +/- 2.8%) groups but good in preconditioned (52.4 +/- 5.1%) and l-norepinephrine (52.5 +/- 1.1%) groups (P < 0. 05). Thus norepinephrine preconditioning, like ischemic preconditioning, causes a paradoxical exacerbation of contracture coupled with enhanced postischemic recovery; both effects are stereospecific.The American journal of physiology 07/1999; 277(1 Pt 2):H136-43. · 3.28 Impact Factor