Features of the metabolic syndrome predict higher risk of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance: a prospective study in Mauritius.

International Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
Diabetes Care (Impact Factor: 7.74). 10/2000; 23(9):1242-8. DOI: 10.2337/diacare.23.9.1242
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To assess the independent and joint effects of the components of the metabolic syndrome, including leptin, which is a recently proposed addition to this syndrome, in predicting the cumulative incidence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes among individuals with normal glucose tolerance.
This prospective study involved 2,605 residents of Mauritius with normal glucose tolerance who were followed for 5 years for IGT or diabetes onset in relation to total and regional adiposity (BMI, waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]), fasting and 2-h 75-g oral glucose load glucose and insulin, total and HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, serum uric acid, triglyceride, and leptin levels.
A multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and diabetes family history showed a significantly higher linear increase in risk of IGT and diabetes in association with the following variables only: fasting glucose (odds ratio 1.89 [95% CI 1.51-2.34]), 2-h glucose (1.68 [1.50-1.88]), WHR (1.30 [1.10-1.52]), BMI (1.04 [1.00-1.08]), and serum uric acid (1.37 [1.20-1.57]). However, a nonlinear increase was seen with serum triglyceride and plasma leptin concentrations. No risk factors resulted in joint effects that were greater than expected from combining individual effects.
Metabolic syndrome features independently predict a higher risk of diabetes or IGT in normoglycemic subjects but in combination confer no higher-than-expected risk of these outcomes. At higher concentrations of triglycerides and leptin, risk plateaus and even declines slightly.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Uric acid, the levels of which have been shown to increase after menopause, has been associated with metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has also been determined to increase after menopause. Therefore, we surmised that menopausal status-specific analyses for the characterisation of the relationship between uric acid and the metabolic syndrome were warranted. We included 1644 patients: 1018 premenopausal women and 626 postmenopausal women, all of whom participated in annual health examinations at Anam Hospital in Seoul, Korea, from January 2008 through December 2008. On the multivariate logistic regression analysis, uric acid was identified as an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Uric acid levels had different relationships with blood pressure based on menopausal status, however, no such relationships with fasting glucose or age were found. Increased uric acid levels were associated with increased risk for metabolic syndrome in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. In studies regarding uric acid and metabolic syndrome in women, the effects of menopausal status should be considered.
    Gynecological Endocrinology 06/2011; 27(6):406-11. · 1.30 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High uric acid levels are associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates in cardiovascular disease. In this article we explore the relationship between cardiovascular disease and xanthine oxidase activity. We look at the evidence that uric acid and its production via the xanthine oxidase pathway, may directly contribute to this increased cardiovascular risk. We examine the relationship between uric acid and other established cardiovascular risk factors and look at the evidence that reducing uric acid production may have a beneficial impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We conclude that although there is currently insufficient evidence to recommend the routine use of xanthine oxidase inhibitors in those with cardiovascular disease and asymptomatic hyperuricemia, there is sufficient evidence to warrant a large scale morbidity and mortality trial.
    American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs 02/2003; 3(5):309-14. · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective was to evaluate a screening procedure for detecting high-yield candidates for an OGTT, in a population of middle-aged Swedish women. A two-step screening procedure was performed in 6917 subjects. Women with a positive screening outcome, i.e. increased non-fasting capillary blood glucose, serum triglycerides, BMI, WHR, blood pressure or a family history of diabetes, pharmacological treatment of hypertension or hyperlipidaemia at the primary screening underwent a 75-g OGTT. A control group of women with negative screening outcome (n = 221) also underwent an OGTT. In 2923 women with positive screening outcome, 517 (17.7%) had NFG/IGT (normal fasting venous blood glucose <5.6 mmol/l and 2h-glucose 6.7-9.9 mmol/l), 109 (3.7%) IFG/IGT (fasting 5.6-6.0 and 2h 6.7-9.9 mmol/l) and 223 (7.6%) diabetes (fasting > or = 6.1 or 2h > or = 10.0 mmol/l). These figures were three, five and four times higher, respectively, than in the control group with negative screening outcome (p < 0.001 for all); no differences were found for IFG/NGT (fasting 5.6-6.0 and normal 2h < 6.7 mmol/l) (4.6% vs. 7.2%). For predicting impaired glucose metabolism (IFG/NGT, NFG/IGT, IFG/IGT, diabetes), the screening instrument showed an estimated sensitivity of 70%, specificity of 55%, positive predictive value of 34% and negative predictive value of 85%, based on findings in the control sample. The odds ratio for NFG/IGT increased with the numbers of risk factors from 2.8 to 7.7, for IFG/ IGT from 5.7 to 55.0 and for diabetes from 2.5 to 18.1. High B-glucose, WHR and BMI were the three most important factors associated with an increased risk for NFG/IGT, IFG/IGT and diabetes. In subjects with IFG/NGT, none of the screening variables was associated with an increased risk. In summary, the results show a population screening method focused on features of the metabolic syndrome that discloses high-yield candidates for OGTT. A high prevalence of unknown impaired glucose metabolism was found in middle-aged women with a positive screening profile.
    European Journal of Epidemiology 01/2001; 17(10):943-51. · 5.12 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 15, 2014