Modified therapeutic community for homeless mentally ill chemical abusers: treatment outcomes.
ABSTRACT This study compared homeless mentally ill chemical abuser (MICA) clients (n = 342), male and female, sequentially assigned to either of two modified therapeutic community programs (TC1 and TC2) and to a treatment-as-usual (TAU) control group. Follow-up interviews were obtained at 12 months postbaseline and at time F (on average more than 2 years postbaseline) on a retrieved sample of 232 (68%) clients and 281 (82%) clients, respectively. Outcome measures assessed five domains: drug use, crime, HIV risk behavior, psychological symptoms, and employment. Individuals in both modified TC groups showed significantly greater behavioral improvement than TAU at 12 months and time F, and the modified TC2, with lower demands and more staff guidance, was superior to modified TC1. Completers of both TC programs showed significantly greater improvement than dropouts and a subgroup of TAU clients with high exposure (i.e., more than 8 months) to other treatment protocols. The present findings support the effectiveness and longer term stability of effects of a modified TC program for treating homeless MICA clients.
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ABSTRACT: Therapeutic communities (TCs) for addictions are drug-free environments in which people with addictive problems live together in an organized and structured way to promote change toward recovery and reinsertion in society. Despite a long research tradition in TCs, the evidence base for the effectiveness of TCs is limited according to available reviews. Since most of these studies applied a selective focus, we made a comprehensive systematic review of all controlled studies that compared the effectiveness of TCs for addictions with that of a control condition. The focus of this paper is on recovery, including attention for various life domains and a longitudinal scope. We searched the following databases: ISI Web of Knowledge (WoS), PubMed, and DrugScope. Our search strategy revealed 997 hits. Eventually, 30 publications were selected for this paper, which were based on 16 original studies. Two out of three studies showed significantly better substance use and legal outcomes among TC participants, and five studies found superior employment and psychological functioning. Length of stay in treatment and participation in subsequent aftercare were consistent predictors of recovery status. We conclude that TCs can promote change regarding various outcome categories. Since recovering addicts often cycle between abstinence and relapse, a continuing care approach is advisable, including assessment of multiple and subjective outcome indicators.The Scientific World Journal 01/2013; 2013:427817. DOI:10.1155/2013/427817 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: More than 350 communities in the United States have committed to ending chronic homelessness. One nationally prominent approach, Housing First, offers early access to permanent housing without requiring completion of treatment or, for clients with addiction, proof of sobriety. This article reviews studies of Housing First and more traditional rehabilitative (e.g., "linear") recovery interventions, focusing on the outcomes obtained by both approaches for homeless individuals with addictive disorders. According to reviews of comparative trials and case series reports, Housing First reports document excellent housing retention, despite the limited amount of data pertaining to homeless clients with active and severe addiction. Several linear programs cite reductions in addiction severity but have shortcomings in long-term housing success and retention. This article suggests that the current research data are not sufficient to identify an optimal housing and rehabilitation approach for an important homeless subgroup. The research regarding Housing First and linear approaches can be strengthened in several ways, and policymakers should be cautious about generalizing the results of available Housing First studies to persons with active addiction when they enter housing programs.Milbank Quarterly 07/2009; 87(2):495-534. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-0009.2009.00565.x · 5.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several large-scale studies examining outcome predictors across various substance use treatments indicate a need to focus on psychiatric comorbidity as a very important predictor of poorer SUD treatment involvement and outcome. We have previously argued that current cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBT) approaches to SUD treatment do not focus on the necessary content in treatment in order to effectively address specific forms of psychiatric comorbidity, and thus only provide clients with generic coping strategies for managing psychiatric illness (as would be achieved in other SUD treatment approaches; Conrod et al., 2000). Furthermore, following our review of the literature on dual-focused CBT treatment programs for concurrent disorders in this article, we argue that combining CBT-oriented SUD treatments with specific CBT treatments for psychiatric disorders is not as straightforward as one would think. Rather, it requires very careful consideration of the functional relationship between specific disorders, patient reactions to specific treatment components, and certain barriers to treatment in order to achieve an integrated dual-diagnosis focus in treatment that is meaningful and to which clients can adhere.Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy 08/2005; 19(3):261-284. DOI:10.1891/jcop.2005.19.3.261