Transcranial magnetic stimulation disrupts eye-hand interactions in the posterior parietal cortex.
ABSTRACT Recent neurophysiological studies have started to shed some light on the cortical areas that contribute to eye-hand coordination. In the present study we investigated the role of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in this process in normal, healthy subjects. This was accomplished by delivering single pulses of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the PPC to transiently disrupt the putative contribution of this area to the processing of information related to eye-hand coordination. Subjects made open-loop pointing movements accompanied by saccades of the same required amplitude or by saccades that were substantially larger. Without TMS the hand movement amplitude was influenced by the amplitude of the corresponding saccade; hand movements accompanied by larger saccades were larger than those accompanied by smaller saccades. When TMS was applied over the left PPC just prior to the onset of the saccade, a marked reduction in the saccadic influence on manual motor output was observed. TMS delivered at earlier or later periods during the response had no effect. Taken together, these data suggest that the PPC integrates signals related to saccade amplitude with limb movement information just prior to the onset of the saccade.
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ABSTRACT: Modification or suppression of reaches occurs in everyday life. We argue that a common modular architecture, based on similar neural structures and principles of kinematic and kinetic control, is used for both direct reaches and for their on-line corrections. When a reach is corrected, both the pattern of neural activity in parietal, premotor and motor cortex and the muscle synergies associated with the first movement can be smoothly blended or sharply substituted into those associated with the second one. Premotor cortex provides the early signalling for trajectory updating, while parietal and motor cortex provide the fine-grained encoding of hand kinematics necessary to reshape the motor plan. The cortical contribution to the inhibitory control of reaching is supported by the activity of a network of frontal areas. Premotor cortex has been proposed as a key structure for reaching suppression. Consistent with this, lesions in different nodes of this network result in different forms of motor deficits, such as Optic Ataxia in parietal patients, and commission errors in frontal ones.Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 05/2014; · 10.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study examined two-segment pointing movements with various accuracy constraints to test whether there is segment interdependency in saccadic eye movements that accompany manual actions. The other purpose was to examine how planning of movement accuracy and amplitude for the second pointing influences the timing of gaze shift to the second target at the transition between two segments. Participants performed a rapid two-segment pointing task, in which the first segment had two target sizes, and the second segment had two target sizes and two movement distances. The results showed that duration and peak velocity of the initial pointing were influenced by altered kinematic characteristics of the second pointing due to task manipulations of the second segment, revealing segment interdependency in hand movements. In contrast, saccade duration and velocity did not show such segment interdependency. Thus, unlike hand movements, saccades are planned and organized independently for each segment during sequential manual actions. In terms of the timing of gaze shift to the second target, this was delayed when the initial pointing was made to the smaller first target, indicating that gaze anchoring to the initial target is used to verify the pointing termination. Importantly, the gaze shift was delayed when the second pointing was made to the smaller or farther second target. This suggests that visual information of the hand position at the initial target is important for the planning of movement distance and accuracy of the next pointing. Furthermore, timings of gaze shift and pointing initiation to the second target were highly correlated. Thus, at the transition between two segments, gazes and hand movements are highly coupled in time, which allows the sensorimotor system to process visual and proprioceptive information for the verification of pointing termination and planning of the next pointing.Experimental Brain Research 04/2014; · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human beings are very skillful at reaching for and grasping objects under multiple conditions, even when faced with an object's wide variety of positions, locations, structures and orientations. This natural ability, controlled by the human brain, is called eye–hand coordination. To understand this behavior it is necessary to study both eye and hand movements simultaneously. This paper proposes a novel approach to detect grasping movements by means of computer vision techniques. This solution fuses two viewpoints, one viewpoint which is obtained from an eye-tracker capturing the user's perspective and a second viewpoint which is captured by a wearable camera attached to a user's wrist. Utilizing information from these two viewpoints it is possible to characterize multiple hand movements in conjunction with eye-gaze movements through a Hidden–Markov Model framework. This paper shows that combining these two sources makes it possible to detect hand gestures using only the objects contained in the scene even without markers on the surface of the objects. In addition, it is possible to detect which is the desired object before the user can actually grasp said object.Image and Vision Computing 11/2012; 30(11):860–874. · 1.58 Impact Factor