Transcranial magnetic stimulation disrupts eye-hand interactions in the posterior parietal cortex.
ABSTRACT Recent neurophysiological studies have started to shed some light on the cortical areas that contribute to eye-hand coordination. In the present study we investigated the role of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in this process in normal, healthy subjects. This was accomplished by delivering single pulses of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the PPC to transiently disrupt the putative contribution of this area to the processing of information related to eye-hand coordination. Subjects made open-loop pointing movements accompanied by saccades of the same required amplitude or by saccades that were substantially larger. Without TMS the hand movement amplitude was influenced by the amplitude of the corresponding saccade; hand movements accompanied by larger saccades were larger than those accompanied by smaller saccades. When TMS was applied over the left PPC just prior to the onset of the saccade, a marked reduction in the saccadic influence on manual motor output was observed. TMS delivered at earlier or later periods during the response had no effect. Taken together, these data suggest that the PPC integrates signals related to saccade amplitude with limb movement information just prior to the onset of the saccade.
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ABSTRACT: To look at or reach for what we see, spatial information from the visual system must be transformed into a motor plan. The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is well placed to perform this function, because it lies between visual areas, which encode spatial information, and motor cortical areas. The PPC contains several subdivisions, which are generally conceived as high-order sensory areas. Neurons in area 7a and the lateral intraparietal area fire before and during visually guided saccades. Other neurons in areas 7a and 5 are active before and during visually guided arm movements. These areas are also active during memory tasks in which the animal remembers the location of a target for hundreds of milliseconds before making an eye or arm movement. Such activity could reflect either visual attention or the intention to make movements. This question is difficult to resolve, because even if the animal maintains fixation while directing attention to a peripheral location, the observed neuronal activity could reflect movements that are planned but not executed. To address this, we recorded from the PPC while monkeys planned either reaches or saccades to a single remembered location. We now report that, for most neurons, activity before the movement depended on the type of movement being planned. We conclude that PPC contains signals related to what the animal intends to do.Nature 04/1997; 386(6621):167-70. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In sensorimotor integration, sensory input and motor output signals are combined to provide an internal estimate of the state of both the world and one's own body. Although a single perceptual and motor snapshot can provide information about the current state, computational models show that the state can be optimally estimated by a recursive process in which an internal estimate is maintained and updated by the current sensory and motor signals. These models predict that an internal state estimate is maintained or stored in the brain. Here we report a patient with a lesion of the superior parietal lobe who shows both sensory and motor deficits consistent with an inability to maintain such an internal representation between updates. Our findings suggest that the superior parietal lobe is critical for sensorimotor integration, by maintaining an internal representation of the body's state.Nature Neuroscience 11/1998; 1(6):529-33. · 15.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Visual inputs to the brain are mapped in a retinocentric reference frame, but the motor system plans movements in a body-centered frame. This basic observation implies that the brain must transform target coordinates from one reference frame to another. Physiological studies revealed that the posterior parietal cortex may contribute a large part of such a transformation, but the question remains as to whether the premotor areas receive visual information, from the parietal cortex, readily coded in body-centered coordinates. To answer this question, we studied dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) neurons in two monkeys while they performed a conditional visuomotor task and maintained fixation at different gaze angles. Visual stimuli were presented on a video monitor, and the monkeys made limb movements on a panel of three touch pads located at the bottom of the monitor. A trial begins when the monkey puts its hand on the central pad. Then, later in the trial, a colored cue instructed a limb movement to the left touch pad if red or to the right one if green. The cues lasted for a variable delay, the instructed delay period, and their offset served as the go signal. The fixation spot was presented at the center of the screen or at one of four peripheral locations. Because the monkey's head was restrained, peripheral fixations caused a deviation of the eyes within the orbit, but for each fixation angle, the instructional cue was presented at nine locations with constant retinocentric coordinates. After the presentation of the instructional cue, 133 PMd cells displayed a phasic discharge (signal-related activity), 157 were tonically active during the instructed delay period (set-related or preparatory activity), and 104 were active after the go signal in relation to movement (movement-related activity). A large proportion of cells showed variations of the discharge rate in relation to limb movement direction, but only modest proportions were sensitive to the cue's location (signal, 43%; set, 34%; movement, 29%). More importantly, the activity of most neurons (signal, 74%; set, 79%; movement, 79%) varied significantly (analysis of variance, P < 0.05) with orbital eye position. A regression analysis showed that the neuronal activity varied linearly with eye position along the horizontal and vertical axes and can be approximated by a two-dimensional regression plane. These data provide evidence that eye position signals modulate the neuronal activity beyond sensory areas, including those involved in visually guided reaching limb movements. Further, they show that neuronal activity related to movement preparation and execution combines at least two directional parameters: arm movement direction and gaze direction in space. It is suggested that a substantial population of PMd cells codes limb movement direction in a head-centered reference frame.Journal of Neurophysiology 10/1998; 80(3):1132-50. · 3.30 Impact Factor