Virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) on Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae): laboratory and field trials.
ABSTRACT Twenty isolates of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch). Sorkin (Ma) were evaluated to determine their virulence against last instar and adult emergence of Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew). Larvae were exposed by immersion in a conidial suspension at a concentration of 10(8) UFC/ml under laboratory conditions. Larvae and pupae cumulative mortality rates ranged from 37.9 to 98.75%. Thirteen isolates caused mortality rates > 83.7%, and their LT50 values ranged from 1.8 to 6.2 d. The Ma2, Ma8, and Ma16 isolates were evaluated at seven different concentrations ranging from 10(1) to 10(7) UFC/ml, showing LC50 values from 3.7 to 4.8 x 10(5) UFC/ml. In a field-cage experiment, 200 ml of a conidial suspension of Ma2, at a concentration of 2.5 x 10(6) UFC/ml, was applied on 2,500 cm2 soil surface (2 x 10(5) UFC/cm2). The fungus reduced adult emergence, 22% fewer adults emerging in a sandy loam soil, and 43% fewer in loam soil, compared with the controls. M. anisopliae may offer a preferable alternative to chemicals as a biological control agent against A. ludens.
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ABSTRACT: The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major tephritid pest in Morocco. This pest survives in Moroccan forests Argania spinosa and continually invades the nearest agricultural areas. Entomopathogenic fungi are an interesting tool for fruit fly control and hold a useful alternative to conventional insecticides. However, primary selection of effective pathogens should be taken in laboratory condition prior to applying them in the field. Here, we used third late instar larvae of C. capitata to investigate the effectiveness of 15 local Beauveria bassiana isolates. Results showed that all isolates were able to infect the larval stage, producing a large mortality rate in puparia ranging from 65 to 95 % and caused significant reduction in adult emergence. The fungal treatments revealed that the mycosis occurred also in adults escaping infection as pupariating larvae. The percentage of mycosed puparia was highest in strain TAM6.2 (95 %) followed by ERS4.16 (90 %), therefore they were the most virulent. Median lethal concentration (LC50) was studied for five isolates at four concentrations ranging from 10(5) to 10(8) conidia ml(-1). The results showed that the slopes of regression lines for B. bassiana ERS4.16 (slope = 0.386) and TAM6.2 (slope = 0.41) were the most important and had the lowest LC50 values (2.85 × 10(3) and 3.16 × 10(3) conidia ml(-1) respectively). This investigation suggests that the soil of Argan forests contains pathogenic B. bassiana isolates and highlights for the first time their potential as biological control toward C. capitata larval stage in Morocco.World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology (Formerly MIRCEN Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology) 10/2013; · 1.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: When last instar laboratory-reared Rhagoletis indifferens were allowed to pupate within non-sterile orchard soil containing incorporated Metarhizium brunneum isolate F52 conidia, a dose related proportion died from developmental abnormalities and mycosis. When larvae entered soil superficially treated with M. brunneum, over 80% of the pupae died of developmental abnormalities.Biocontrol Science and Technology 01/2011; · 0.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Approximately 4,000 known/described species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) are distributed in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions of world, out of which 200 species are economically important and damaging/spoiling not only to fruits but also to a number of vegetable crops. Despite their tremendous importance, a limited amount of information is available on the ecology and behaviour of fruit flies especially when compared to fruit fly species complex. It is necessary to understand the ecology and behaviour before the formulation of management strategy. The present review may serves as a baseline data for scientists engaged in fruit fly management programs. Key themes include: (1) demography and population dynamics and, (2) behaviour (e.g. sexual, mating, oviposition, and feeding). The excess of literature on monitoring and management of fruit flies are available, which includes male sterilization and annihilation, mass trapping, chemical baits, mating disruption, and biological control. But few of them are easily adopted by users and give satisfactory control of fruit flies and rest are not easily adopted or if used does not give effective control, because of the lack of knowledge about the ecology and behaviour of fruit flies. If the information on population dynamics, behavior, and the related ecological factors are not jointly gathered, it is almost impossible to carry out an appropriate pest control at the right time and place. We hope that this synthesis will lay the groundwork for future ecological and behavioural studies of fruit fly species, populations, communities, and control.Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology. 15(3).