Absence of cardiac toxicity of zidovudine in infants. Pediatric Pulmonary and Cardiac Complications of Vertically Transmitted HIV Infection Study Group.
ABSTRACT Perinatal exposure to zidovudine may cause cardiac abnormalities in infants. We prospectively studied left ventricular structure and function in infants born to mothers infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in order to determine whether there was evidence of zidovudine cardiac toxicity after perinatal exposure.
We followed a group of infants born to HIV-infected women from birth to five years of age with echocardiographic studies every four to six months. Serial echocardiograms were obtained for 382 infants without HIV infection (36 with zidovudine exposure) and HIV-58 infected infants (12 with zidovudine exposure). Repeated-measures analysis was used to examine four measures of left ventricular structure and function during the first 14 months of life in relation to zidovudine exposure.
Zidovudine exposure was not associated with significant abnormalities in mean left ventricular fractional shortening, end-diastolic dimension, contractility, or mass in either non-HIV-infected or HIV-infected infants. Among infants without HIV infection, the mean fractional shortening at 10 to 14 months was 38.1 percent for those never exposed to zidovudine and 39.0 percent for those exposed to zidovudine (mean difference, -0.9 percent; 95 percent confidence interval, -3.1 percent to 1.3 percent; P=0.43). Among HIV-infected infants, the mean fractional shortening at 10 to 14 months was similar in those never exposed to zidovudine (35.4 percent) and those exposed to the drug (35.3 percent) (mean difference, 0.1 percent; 95 percent confidence interval, -3.7 percent to 3.9 percent; P=0.95). Zidovudine exposure was not significantly related to depressed fractional shortening (shortening of 25 percent or loss) during the first 14 months of life. No child over the age of 10 months had depressed fractional shortening.
Zidovudine was not associated with acute or chronic abnormalities in left ventricular structure or function in infants exposed to the drug in the perinatal period.
Article: ZidovudinePaediatric Drugs 01/2002; 4(8). DOI:10.2165/00128072-200204080-00004 · 1.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Infant laboratory abnormalities have been associated with exposure to antiretrovirals and to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX). We analyzed data from International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Group (IMPAACT) Protocol P1025, a prospective cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV)-infected women and their infants. Live-born, singleton, HIV-uninfected infants with at least 6 months of follow-up who represented the first pregnancy on study of HIV-infected mothers with at least 1 prenatal visit, CD4 count, and viral load during pregnancy and who used at least 1 antiretroviral during pregnancy were eligible for inclusion in this analysis. The study population comprised 1524 infants. During the first 6 months of life, 7.4% of laboratory serious adverse events (SAEs) were related to glucose, 7.2% were related to hemoglobin, 8.7% were related to absolute neutrophil count, and 4.0% were related to total lymphocyte count. The likelihood of laboratory SAEs decreased with increasing age for hemoglobin, absolute neutrophil count, and glucose. Infant preterm birth and current receipt of antiretroviral(s) were the factors with the strongest associations with laboratory SAEs. The overall frequency of laboratory SAEs was low and decreased with age. Preterm infants are at higher risk of hemoglobin- and total lymphocyte count-related SAEs.06/2012; 1(2):92-102. DOI:10.1093/jpids/pis036
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ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Prior to contemporary antiretroviral therapies (ARTs), children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were more likely to have heart failure. This study suggests that highly active ART (HAART) does not appear to impair heart function. OBJECTIVE To determine the cardiac effects of prolonged exposure to HAART on HIV-infected children. DESIGN In the National Institutes of Health-funded Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study's Adolescent Master Protocol (AMP), we used linear regression models to compare echocardiographic measures. SETTING A total of 14 US pediatric HIV clinics. PARTICIPANTS Perinatally HIV-infected children receiving HAART (n = 325), HIV-exposed but uninfected children (n = 189), and HIV-infected (mostly HAART-unexposed) historical pediatric controls from the National Institutes of Health-funded Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Complications of Vertically Transmitted HIV Infection (P2C2-HIV) Study (n = 70). EXPOSURE Long-term HAART. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Echocardiographic measures of left ventricular (LV) function and structure. RESULTS The 325 AMP HIV-infected children had lower viral loads, higher CD4 counts, and longer durations of ART than did the 70 HIV-infected children from the P2C2-HIV Study (all P < .001). The z scores for LV fractional shortening (a measure of cardiac function) were significantly lower among HIV-infected children from the P2C2-HIV Study than among the AMP HIV-infected group or the 189 AMP HIV-exposed but uninfected controls (P < .05). For HIV-infected children, a lower nadir CD4 percentage and a higher current viral load were associated with significantly lower cardiac function (LV contractility and LV fractional shortening z scores; all P = .001) and an increased LV end-systolic dimension z score (all P < .03). In an interaction analysis by HIV-infected cohort, the HIV-infected children from the P2C2-HIV Study with a longer ART exposure or a lower nadir CD4 percentage had lower mean LV fractional shortening z scores, whereas the mean z scores were relatively constant among AMP HIV-infected children (P < .05 for all interactions). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Long-term HAART appears to be cardioprotective for HIV-infected children and adolescents.04/2013; 167(6):1-8. DOI:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.1206