Purification and characterization of glpX-encoded fructose 1, 6-bisphosphatase, a new enzyme of the glycerol 3-phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli.

Department of Biochemistry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA.
Journal of Bacteriology (Impact Factor: 2.81). 11/2000; 182(19):5624-7.
Source: PubMed


In Escherichia coli, gene products of the glp regulon mediate utilization of glycerol and sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The glpFKX operon encodes glycerol diffusion facilitator, glycerol kinase, and as shown here, a fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase that is distinct from the previously described fbp-encoded enzyme. The purified enzyme was dimeric, dependent on Mn(2+) for activity, and exhibited an apparent K(m) of 35 microM for fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. The enzyme was inhibited by ADP and phosphate and activated by phosphoenolpyruvate.

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    • "Hence, Ppdk and FBPase represent two enzymatic steps specifically acting in the gluconeogenic direction and which are not depending on the reversibility of a glycolytic enzyme. Five different classes of FBPases have been described according to their amino acid sequences (Donahue et al., 2000). Types I–III are primarily found in bacteria, type IV in archaea and type V in thermophilic prokaryotes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Intracellular multiplication and dissemination of the infectious bacterial pathogen Francisella tularensis implies the utilization of multiple host-derived nutrients. Here, we demonstrate that gluconeogenesis constitutes an essential metabolic pathway in Francisella pathogenesis. Indeed, inactivation of gene glpX, encoding the unique fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase of Francisella, severely impaired bacterial intracellular multiplication when cells were supplemented by gluconeogenic substrates such as glycerol or pyruvate. The ΔglpX mutant also showed a severe virulence defect in the mouse model, confirming the importance of this pathway during the in vivo life cycle of the pathogen. Isotopic profiling revealed the major role of the Embden-Meyerhof (glycolysis) pathway in glucose catabolism in Francisella and confirmed the importance of glpX in gluconeogenesis. Altogether, the data presented suggest that gluconeogenesis allows Francisella to cope with the limiting glucose availability it encounters during its infectious cycle by relying on host amino acids. Hence, targeting the gluconeogenic pathway might constitute an interesting therapeutic approach against this pathogen. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Molecular Microbiology 07/2015; 98(3). DOI:10.1111/mmi.13139 · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    • "Prokaryotic Class I and Class II FBPase are distantly related to each other [13]. Class I contains typical FBPase domain [14], while Class II contains FBPase_glpX domain [15]. When we searched against Pfam database to identify the two kinds of domains in all the available eubacterial F/SBPase whose dual function has been experimentally determined, eight sequences, six of which are from proteobacteria and two from cyanobacteria, were obtained. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background In the Calvin cycle of eubacteria, the dephosphorylations of both fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate (FBP) and sedoheptulose-1, 7-bisphosphate (SBP) are catalyzed by the same bifunctional enzyme: fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase/sedoheptulose-1, 7-bisphosphatase (F/SBPase), while in that of eukaryotic chloroplasts by two distinct enzymes: chloroplastic fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and sedoheptulose-1, 7-bisphosphatase (SBPase), respectively. It was proposed that these two eukaryotic enzymes arose from the divergence of a common ancestral eubacterial bifunctional F/SBPase of mitochondrial origin. However, no specific affinity between SBPase and eubacterial FBPase or F/SBPase can be observed in the previous phylogenetic analyses, and it is hard to explain why SBPase and/or F/SBPase are/is absent from most extant nonphotosynthetic eukaryotes according to this scenario. Results Domain analysis indicated that eubacterial F/SBPase of two different resources contain distinct domains: proteobacterial F/SBPases contain typical FBPase domain, while cyanobacterial F/SBPases possess FBPase_glpX domain. Therefore, like prokaryotic FBPase, eubacterial F/SBPase can also be divided into two evolutionarily distant classes (Class I and II). Phylogenetic analysis based on a much larger taxonomic sampling than previous work revealed that all eukaryotic SBPase cluster together and form a close sister group to the clade of epsilon-proteobacterial Class I FBPase which are gluconeogenesis-specific enzymes, while all eukaryotic chloroplast FBPase group together with eukaryotic cytosolic FBPase and form another distinct clade which then groups with the Class I FBPase of diverse eubacteria. Motif analysis of these enzymes also supports these phylogenetic correlations. Conclusions There are two evolutionarily distant classes of eubacterial bifunctional F/SBPase. Eukaryotic FBPase and SBPase do not diverge from either of them but have two independent origins: SBPase share a common ancestor with the gluconeogenesis-specific Class I FBPase of epsilon-proteobacteria (or probably originated from that of the ancestor of epsilon-proteobacteria), while FBPase arise from Class I FBPase of an unknown kind of eubacteria. During the evolution of SBPase from eubacterial Class I FBPase, the SBP-dephosphorylation activity was acquired through the transition “from specialist to generalist”. The evolutionary substitution of the endosymbiotic-origin cyanobacterial bifunctional F/SBPase by the two light-regulated substrate-specific enzymes made the regulation of the Calvin cycle more delicate, which contributed to the evolution of eukaryotic photosynthesis and even the entire photosynthetic eukaryotes.
    BMC Evolutionary Biology 10/2012; 12(1):208. DOI:10.1186/1471-2148-12-208 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    • "As is the case in Phaeodactylum, one of the T. oceanica FBAs from each compartment (FBA1, FBA2, FBA6) appears to act through metal catalysis (class II) while the second (FBA3, FBA5, FBA4) is predicted to use Schiff-base catalysis (class I) instead. While the metal cofactor of different class II FBAs was found to be Mn2+ [28], Zn2+ [29] or Cd2+ [30] in Escherichia coli, the orthologous FBAs of T. oceanica apparently are differentially regulated through the availability of iron, suggesting the involved metal in these enzymes might be Fe2+, and implying a pairwise substitution by class I enzymes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Biogeochemical elemental cycling is driven by primary production of biomass via phototrophic phytoplankton growth, with 40% of marine productivity being assigned to diatoms. Phytoplankton growth is widely limited by the availability of iron, an essential component of the photosynthetic apparatus. The oceanic diatom Thalassiosira oceanica shows a remarkable tolerance to low-iron conditions and was chosen as a model for deciphering the cellular response upon shortage of this essential micronutrient. Results The combined efforts in genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics reveal an unexpected metabolic flexibility in response to iron availability for T. oceanica CCMP1005. The complex response comprises cellular retrenchment as well as remodeling of bioenergetic pathways, where the abundance of iron-rich photosynthetic proteins is lowered, whereas iron-rich mitochondrial proteins are preserved. As a consequence of iron deprivation, the photosynthetic machinery undergoes a remodeling to adjust the light energy utilization with the overall decrease in photosynthetic electron transfer complexes. Conclusions Beneficial adaptations to low-iron environments include strategies to lower the cellular iron requirements and to enhance iron uptake. A novel contribution enhancing iron economy of phototrophic growth is observed with the iron-regulated substitution of three metal-containing fructose-bisphosphate aldolases involved in metabolic conversion of carbohydrates for enzymes that do not contain metals. Further, our data identify candidate components of a high-affinity iron-uptake system, with several of the involved genes and domains originating from duplication events. A high genomic plasticity, as seen from the fraction of genes acquired through horizontal gene transfer, provides the platform for these complex adaptations to a low-iron world.
    Genome biology 07/2012; 13(7):R66. DOI:10.1186/gb-2012-13-7-r66 · 10.81 Impact Factor
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