Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children.

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, USA.
Psychiatric Clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 2.13). 10/2000; 23(3):519-33.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Childhood OCD is a chronic and commonly disabling disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 2% to 3%. Traditionally OCD was a neglected diagnosis, but renewed research interest over the past decade has led to significant advances in the understanding of the disorder in young people. OCD is relatively consistent across the age span in terms of prevalence, phenomenology, etiology, and response to treatment. Comorbidity, especially depression and other anxiety disorders, is common in children with OCD and may exert a negative influence on treatment response and long-term outcome. Nevertheless, CBT and SSRI therapy have been shown to be effective and well-tolerated therapies for children with OCD.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric disorders diagnosed during childhood and adolescence. Reported lifetime prevalence of children or adolescents meeting criteria for at least one anxiety disorder in industrialized countries ranges from 8–27%. Current treatment includes psychotherapy (cognitive and behavioural therapies) as well as medication which is almost always used together with psychotherapy, rather than as a stand-alone treatment.Objective To synthesize the evidence currently in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) related to the question: ‘In the treatment of childhood and adolescent anxiety disorders, which pharmacologic or nonpharmacologic treatments are known to improve symptom response, response rates, functional capacity, adherence, persistence, and acceptability as well as increase diagnostic remission and decrease adverse events?’.Methods The CDSR was searched using the term ‘anxiety disorders’ in the title for all systematic reviews examining pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions for the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, including pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Data were extracted and entered into tables; data were synthesized using qualitative and quantitative methods.Main ResultsOf the studies included in the CDSR, treatment of childhood and adolescent anxiety disorders with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) led to significant reductions in anxiety symptoms and increased recovery. Treatment with CBT or behavioural therapy (BT) led to notable reductions in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder (OCD) severity and a reduced risk of treatment failure. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) venlafaxine were superior to placebo in treating OCD and other anxiety disorders. There was no clear evidence that any particular SSRI or venlafaxine was most efficacious or best tolerated. While few studies were available, CBT combined with a SSRI or SNRI led to significant reductions in both anxiety and OCD symptoms. Psychotherapy (CBT/BT), used alone or in combination with medication, had a mixed impact on reducing risk of treatment failure for OCD.Author's Conclusions For childhood and adolescent anxiety disorders, including OCD, the CDSR reviews suggest that psychotherapy treatments are efficacious in reducing symptom severity. Although the CDSR does not include a number of recent research publications on CBT, these newer studies further reinforce CBT efficacy. Pharmacotherapy evidence from the CDSR supports using medication in treating anxiety disorders, and while few studies examined combined pharmacological and psychological treatment, results to date are also favourable for this combination. Clinicians should rely on expert consensus guidelines vis-à-vis this evidence as treatment decision-making should be moderated by the patient's illness severity. Psychotherapy remains the first line treatment for mild to moderate symptoms, whereas pharmacotherapy is used for severe or treatment-resistant disorders. In conclusion, there is a body of literature in the CDSR to support evidence-based treatment decisions for pediatric anxiety disorders; however, as this is a field that is rapidly expanding its knowledge base, efforts must be made to ensure the most recent evidence is consistently incorporated. Copyright © 2010 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Evidence-Based Child Health A Cochrane Review Journal 06/2010; 5(2). DOI:10.1002/ebch.508
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    ABSTRACT: The last two decades have seen an increase in evidence supporting behavioral and pharmacologic treatments of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, a debilitating anxiety disorder that affects about 1% of youth. However, dissemination of knowledge about these treatments to pediatric health care providers and families of affected children has been less successful. Following best practice guidelines, specific evidence for cognitive-behavioral therapy with exposure and response prevention and pharmacotherapy with serotonin reuptake inhibi-tors are presented. A discussion of clinical features and their impact on treatment delivery and empirically based suggestions for overcoming these barriers are also presented. Future directions for enhancing treatment implementation and dissemination are discussed.
    01/2012; DOI:10.2147/PHMT.S23308
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes and discusses the methodology of the Nordic long-term OCD-treatment study (NordLOTS). The purpose of this effectiveness study was to study treatment outcome of CBT, to identify CBT non- or partial responders and to investigate whether an increased number of CBT-sessions or sertraline treatment gives the best outcome; to identify treatment refractory patients and to investigate the outcome of aripiprazole augmentation; to study the outcome over a three year period for each responder including the risk of relapse, and finally to study predictors, moderators and mediators of treatment response. Step 1 was an open and uncontrolled clinical trial with CBT, step 2 was a controlled, randomised non-blinded study of CBT non-responders from step 1. Patients were randomized to receive either sertraline plus CBT-support or continued and modified CBT. In step 3 patients who did not respond to either CBT or sertraline were treated with aripiprazole augmentation to sertraline. This multicenter trial covering three Scandinavian countries is going to be the largest CBT-study for paediatric OCD to date. It is not funded by industry and tries in the short and long-term to answer the question whether further CBT or SSRI is better in CBT non-responders.
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 12/2013; 7(1):41. DOI:10.1186/1753-2000-7-41