Previous studies identified a prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) receptor in the salivary glands of partially fed female lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.). In the present studies, protein secretion from dispersed salivary gland acini was shown to be specific for PGE(2), as compared with PGF(2alpha) or the thromboxane analog U-46619, in accordance with their respective binding affinities for the PGE(2) receptor. Furthermore, the selective PGE(2) EP1 receptor agonist, 17-phenyl trinor PGE(2), was as effective as PGE(2) in stimulating secretion of anticoagulant protein. Calcium ionophore A-23187 (1 to 100 microM) stimulated secretion of anticoagulant protein in a dose-dependent manner but the voltage-gated Ca(2+)-channel blocker verapamil (1 to 1000 microM) and the receptor-mediated Ca(2+)-entry antagonist, SK&F 96365 (1 and 10 microM), and 5mM ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,NN', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) had no appreciable effect on inhibiting PGE(2)-stimulated secretion of anticoagulant protein. PGE(2) (0.1 microM) and the non-hydrolyzable analog of guanosine triphosphate (GTP), GTPgammaS (10 microM), directly activated phospholipase C (PLC) in a membrane-enriched fraction of the salivary glands after PLC was first incubated with the PGE(2) EP1 receptor antagonist AH-6809, which presumably antagonized endogenous PGE(2) (0.3 microM) in the broken-cell-membrane-enriched fraction. TMB-8, an antagonist of intracellular inositol trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptors, inhibited PGE(2)-stimulated secretion. The results support the hypothesis that PGE(2) stimulates secretion of tick salivary gland protein via a phosphoinositide signaling pathway and mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+).
"Qian et al. (1997) reported on a specific PGE 2 receptor in the salivary glands of the female tick, Amblyomma americanum, which acts in modulating salivary secretion . Another PGE 2 receptor may regulate protein secretion in the salivary glands (Yuan et al., 2000). Aside from this, we have very little understanding of PG actions at the level of insect cells. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostaglandins (PGs) and other eicosanoids are oxygenated metabolites of arachidonic acid and two other C(20) polyunsaturated fatty acids. While most well studied in mammals, PGs exert important actions in insects and virtually all other invertebrates. We have been researching the mechanisms of PG actions in established insect cell lines and reported earlier that two PGs, PGA(1) and PGE(1), influence gene and protein expression in HzAM1 cells. Here we report on further experiments with three 2-series PGs, PGA(2), PGE(2) and PGF(2α). In separate experiments we treated cells with each of the three PGs for 12 and 24h and then analyzed cell lysates by 2-D electrophoresis. Analysis of the gels by Delta2D software showed that PGA(2) influenced expression of 60 proteins while PGE(2) and PGF(2α) treatments led to expression changes for only a few proteins. All spots representing changes in protein expression were processed for analysis by MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Bioinformatic analysis of the resulting sequences yielded in silico identifications of all proteins. The apparent changes in some proteins were confirmed by quantitative PCR, which demonstrated that changes in protein expression were parallel to changes in mRNA expression. We assorted the proteins into functional categories, including 1/cell structure and function; 2/cell protection and immunity; 3/energetics and metabolism; 4/nucleotide processing; 5/protein action and processing and 6/signal transduction. These findings substantially extend our idea that one mechanism of PG actions in insect cells is the modulation of gene and protein expression.
"Further work indicated that the PGE 2 receptor stimulates secretion of protein in salivary glands of female ticks. Yuan et al. (2000) inferred from their results that PGE 2 acts through a G protein coupled EP1 receptor. Aside from this work with tick salivary glands, however, there is no information on the mechanisms of eicosanoid actions in invertebrates. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostaglandins (PGs) and other eicosanoids exert important physiological actions in insects and other invertebrates, including influencing ion transport and mediating cellular immune defense functions. Although these actions are very well documented, we have no information on the mechanisms of PGs actions in insect cells. Here we report on the outcomes of experiments designed to test our hypothesis that PGs modulate gene expression in an insect cell line established from pupal ovarian tissue of the moth Helicoverpa zea (BCIRL-HzAM1 cells). We treated cells with either PGA(1) or PGE(1) for 12 or 24h then analyzed cell lysates by 2-D electrophoresis. Analysis of the gels by densitometry revealed substantial changes in protein expression in some of the protein spots we analyzed. These spots were processed for mass spectrometric analysis by MALDI TOF/TOF, which yielded in silico protein identities for all 34 spots. The apparent changes in three of the proteins were confirmed by semi-quantative PCR, showing that the changes in mRNA expression were reflected in changes in protein expression. The 34 proteins were sorted into six categories, protein actions, lipid metabolism, signal transduction, protection, cell functions and metabolism. The findings support the hypothesis that one mechanism of PG action in insect cells is the modulation of gene expression.
"Dental caries, resulting from the loss of salivary flow, may be associated with periodontal disease (Ravald and List, 1998). Prostaglandins (PGs) are among the most relevant local mediators that participate in the modulation of acinar cell functions under basal conditions (Yuan et al., 2000). During inflammation or in early stages of autoimmune diseases, PGs are released in large amounts. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated that antibodies against cholinoreceptors of exocrine glands correlate with dry mouth in persons with primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS). The aim of the present investigation was to establish if serum IgG antibodies (pSS IgG) were able to interact with cholinoreceptors in rat submandibular gland-dependent stimulation of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) mRNA expression and PGE(2) production. Our findings indicated that pSS IgG-stimulating M(3), M(4), and M(1) cholinoreceptors exerted an increase in COX-2 mRNA without affecting COX-1 mRNA expression and increased PGE(2) production. Inhibitors of phospholipase A(2), COX- s, L-type calcium channel currents, and Ca(2+)-ATPase from sarcoplasmic reticulum prevented the pSS IgG effect on PGE(2) production. An ionophore of calcium mimicked pSS IgG action, suggesting a crucial role of calcium homeostasis in the cholinoreceptor-stimulated increase in PGE(2) production. Moreover, the amounts of PGE(2) in saliva and in sera from persons with pSS were significantly higher than in pre- or post-menopausal women. These findings illustrate the importance of autoantibodies to cholinoreceptors in the generation of chronic inflammation of target tissues in SS.
Journal of Dental Research 10/2007; 86(9):832-6. DOI:10.1177/154405910708600905 · 4.14 Impact Factor
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