Prostaglandin E(2)-stimulated secretion of protein in the salivary glands of the lone star tick via a phosphoinositide signaling pathway.
ABSTRACT Previous studies identified a prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) receptor in the salivary glands of partially fed female lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.). In the present studies, protein secretion from dispersed salivary gland acini was shown to be specific for PGE(2), as compared with PGF(2alpha) or the thromboxane analog U-46619, in accordance with their respective binding affinities for the PGE(2) receptor. Furthermore, the selective PGE(2) EP1 receptor agonist, 17-phenyl trinor PGE(2), was as effective as PGE(2) in stimulating secretion of anticoagulant protein. Calcium ionophore A-23187 (1 to 100 microM) stimulated secretion of anticoagulant protein in a dose-dependent manner but the voltage-gated Ca(2+)-channel blocker verapamil (1 to 1000 microM) and the receptor-mediated Ca(2+)-entry antagonist, SK&F 96365 (1 and 10 microM), and 5mM ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,NN', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) had no appreciable effect on inhibiting PGE(2)-stimulated secretion of anticoagulant protein. PGE(2) (0.1 microM) and the non-hydrolyzable analog of guanosine triphosphate (GTP), GTPgammaS (10 microM), directly activated phospholipase C (PLC) in a membrane-enriched fraction of the salivary glands after PLC was first incubated with the PGE(2) EP1 receptor antagonist AH-6809, which presumably antagonized endogenous PGE(2) (0.3 microM) in the broken-cell-membrane-enriched fraction. TMB-8, an antagonist of intracellular inositol trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptors, inhibited PGE(2)-stimulated secretion. The results support the hypothesis that PGE(2) stimulates secretion of tick salivary gland protein via a phosphoinositide signaling pathway and mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+).
- SourceAvailable from: Cynthia Lenz Goodman[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Prostaglandins (PGs) and other eicosanoids exert important physiological actions in insects and other invertebrates, including influencing ion transport and mediating cellular immune defense functions. Although these actions are very well documented, we have no information on the mechanisms of PGs actions in insect cells. Here we report on the outcomes of experiments designed to test our hypothesis that PGs modulate gene expression in an insect cell line established from pupal ovarian tissue of the moth Helicoverpa zea (BCIRL-HzAM1 cells). We treated cells with either PGA(1) or PGE(1) for 12 or 24h then analyzed cell lysates by 2-D electrophoresis. Analysis of the gels by densitometry revealed substantial changes in protein expression in some of the protein spots we analyzed. These spots were processed for mass spectrometric analysis by MALDI TOF/TOF, which yielded in silico protein identities for all 34 spots. The apparent changes in three of the proteins were confirmed by semi-quantative PCR, showing that the changes in mRNA expression were reflected in changes in protein expression. The 34 proteins were sorted into six categories, protein actions, lipid metabolism, signal transduction, protection, cell functions and metabolism. The findings support the hypothesis that one mechanism of PG action in insect cells is the modulation of gene expression.Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 04/2008; 38(3):275-84. · 3.23 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: High concentrations of PGE(2) and PGF(2alpha) were identified by radio-immunoassay (RIA) and/or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in the hemolymph, salivary glands and saliva of the lone star tick Amblyomma americanum (L.). Binding studies indicated that PGE(2) was free and not bound to any proteins in the hemolymph. A small amount of 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) (breakdown product of PGI(2); prostacyclin) was also found in the salivary glands but not in the hemolymph or saliva. Neither PGD(2) nor PGA(2)/B(2) was detected in any tick material investigated. Although PGE(2) was found in the gut contents, only small amounts of label crossed the gut into the hemolymph during artificial feeding with labeled PGE(2), indicating that the high amounts of PGE(2) in hemolymph and salivary glands are not sequestered from the host blood meal. Isolated salivary glands and salivary gland homogenates demonstrated robust synthesis of PGE(2) at high concentrations of exogenous arachidonic acid. Synthesis by the salivary glands was monitored by measuring increasing PGE(2) with increasing arachidonic acid by RIA, GC/MS and labeled PGE(2) in the presence of labeled arachidonic acid. Synthesis was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by indomethacin indicating that the cyclooxygenase synthesizing prostaglandins in ticks shares similarities to the enzyme found in mammals.Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 04/2002; 32(3):331-41. · 3.23 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Prostaglandins (PGs) and other eicosanoids are oxygenated metabolites of arachidonic acid and two other C(20) polyunsaturated fatty acids. While most well studied in mammals, PGs exert important actions in insects and virtually all other invertebrates. We have been researching the mechanisms of PG actions in established insect cell lines and reported earlier that two PGs, PGA(1) and PGE(1), influence gene and protein expression in HzAM1 cells. Here we report on further experiments with three 2-series PGs, PGA(2), PGE(2) and PGF(2α). In separate experiments we treated cells with each of the three PGs for 12 and 24h and then analyzed cell lysates by 2-D electrophoresis. Analysis of the gels by Delta2D software showed that PGA(2) influenced expression of 60 proteins while PGE(2) and PGF(2α) treatments led to expression changes for only a few proteins. All spots representing changes in protein expression were processed for analysis by MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Bioinformatic analysis of the resulting sequences yielded in silico identifications of all proteins. The apparent changes in some proteins were confirmed by quantitative PCR, which demonstrated that changes in protein expression were parallel to changes in mRNA expression. We assorted the proteins into functional categories, including 1/cell structure and function; 2/cell protection and immunity; 3/energetics and metabolism; 4/nucleotide processing; 5/protein action and processing and 6/signal transduction. These findings substantially extend our idea that one mechanism of PG actions in insect cells is the modulation of gene and protein expression.Journal of insect physiology 03/2012; 58(6):837-49. · 2.24 Impact Factor