Prostaglandin E(2)-stimulated secretion of protein in the salivary glands of the lone star tick via a phosphoinositide signaling pathway.
ABSTRACT Previous studies identified a prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) receptor in the salivary glands of partially fed female lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.). In the present studies, protein secretion from dispersed salivary gland acini was shown to be specific for PGE(2), as compared with PGF(2alpha) or the thromboxane analog U-46619, in accordance with their respective binding affinities for the PGE(2) receptor. Furthermore, the selective PGE(2) EP1 receptor agonist, 17-phenyl trinor PGE(2), was as effective as PGE(2) in stimulating secretion of anticoagulant protein. Calcium ionophore A-23187 (1 to 100 microM) stimulated secretion of anticoagulant protein in a dose-dependent manner but the voltage-gated Ca(2+)-channel blocker verapamil (1 to 1000 microM) and the receptor-mediated Ca(2+)-entry antagonist, SK&F 96365 (1 and 10 microM), and 5mM ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,NN', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) had no appreciable effect on inhibiting PGE(2)-stimulated secretion of anticoagulant protein. PGE(2) (0.1 microM) and the non-hydrolyzable analog of guanosine triphosphate (GTP), GTPgammaS (10 microM), directly activated phospholipase C (PLC) in a membrane-enriched fraction of the salivary glands after PLC was first incubated with the PGE(2) EP1 receptor antagonist AH-6809, which presumably antagonized endogenous PGE(2) (0.3 microM) in the broken-cell-membrane-enriched fraction. TMB-8, an antagonist of intracellular inositol trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptors, inhibited PGE(2)-stimulated secretion. The results support the hypothesis that PGE(2) stimulates secretion of tick salivary gland protein via a phosphoinositide signaling pathway and mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+).
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ABSTRACT: Ticks are important vectors of numerous human diseases and animal diseases. Feeding stimulates spermatogenesis, mating and insemination of male factors that trigger female reproduction. The physiology of male reproduction and its regulation of female development are essentially a black box. Several transcriptomes have catalogued expression of tick genes in the salivary glands, synganglion and midgut but no comprehensive investigation has addressed male reproduction and mating. Consequently, a new global approach using transcriptomics, proteomics, and quantitative gene expression is needed to understand male reproduction and stimulation of female reproduction.This first transcriptome to the reproductive biology of fed male ticks, Dermacentor variabilis, was obtained by 454 pyrosequencing (563,093 reads, 12,804 contigs). Gene Ontology (Biological Processes level III) recognized 3,866 transcripts in 73 different categories; spermiogenesis; spermatogenesis; peptidases, lipases and hydrolases; oxidative and environmental stress; immune defense; and protein binding. Reproduction-associated genes included serine/threonine kinase, metalloendoproteinases, ferritins, serine proteases, trypsin, cysteine proteases, serpins, a cystatin, GPCR and others. qRT-PCR showed significant upregulation from unfed versus fed adult male reproductive organs of zinc metalloprotease, astacin metalloprotease and serine protease, enzymes important in spermiogenesis and mating activity in insects, as well as a GPCR with the greatest similarity to a SIFamide receptor known to be important in regulating courtship behavior in Drosophila. Proteomics on these organs and the spermatophore by tryptic digestion/Liquid chromatography/Mass spectrometry/Mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) demonstrated expression of many of the same messages found by 454 sequencing, supporting their identification, and revealed differences in protein distribution in the reproductive system versus the spermatophore. We found Efα but no EF β in the transcriptome and neither of these proteins in the spermatophore. Thus, the previously described model for male regulation of female reproduction may not apply to other ticks. A new paradigm is needed to explain male stimulation of female tick reproduction.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(9):e24711. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prostaglandins (PGs) and other eicosanoids are oxygenated metabolites of arachidonic acid and two other C(20) polyunsaturated fatty acids. While most well studied in mammals, PGs exert important actions in insects and virtually all other invertebrates. We have been researching the mechanisms of PG actions in established insect cell lines and reported earlier that two PGs, PGA(1) and PGE(1), influence gene and protein expression in HzAM1 cells. Here we report on further experiments with three 2-series PGs, PGA(2), PGE(2) and PGF(2α). In separate experiments we treated cells with each of the three PGs for 12 and 24h and then analyzed cell lysates by 2-D electrophoresis. Analysis of the gels by Delta2D software showed that PGA(2) influenced expression of 60 proteins while PGE(2) and PGF(2α) treatments led to expression changes for only a few proteins. All spots representing changes in protein expression were processed for analysis by MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Bioinformatic analysis of the resulting sequences yielded in silico identifications of all proteins. The apparent changes in some proteins were confirmed by quantitative PCR, which demonstrated that changes in protein expression were parallel to changes in mRNA expression. We assorted the proteins into functional categories, including 1/cell structure and function; 2/cell protection and immunity; 3/energetics and metabolism; 4/nucleotide processing; 5/protein action and processing and 6/signal transduction. These findings substantially extend our idea that one mechanism of PG actions in insect cells is the modulation of gene and protein expression.Journal of insect physiology 03/2012; 58(6):837-49. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The kissing bug Triatoma rubida (Uhler, 1894) is found in southwestern United States and parts of Mexico where it is found infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, invades human dwellings and causes allergies from their bites. Although the protein salivary composition of several triatomine species is known, not a single salivary protein sequence is known from T. rubida. Furthermore, the salivary diversity of related hematophagous arthropods is very large probably because of the immune pressure from their hosts. Here we report the sialotranscriptome analysis of T. rubida based on the assembly of 1,820 high-quality expressed sequence tags, 51% of which code for putative secreted peptides, including lipocalins, members of the antigen five family, apyrase, hemolysin, and trialysin families. Interestingly, T. rubida lipocalins are at best 40% identical in primary sequence to those of T. protracta, a kissing bug that overlaps its range with T. rubida, indicating the diversity of the salivary lipocalins among species of the same hematophagous genus. We additionally found several expressed sequence tags coding for proteins of clear Trypanosoma spp. origin. This work contributes to the future development of markers of human and pet exposure to T. rubida and to the possible development of desensitization therapies. Supp. Data 1 and 2 (online only) of the transcriptome and deducted protein sequences can be obtained from http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/Trubida/Triru-S1-web.xlsx and http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/Trubida/Triru-S2-web.xlsx.Journal of Medical Entomology 05/2012; 49(3):563-72. · 1.86 Impact Factor