Article

Olive oil, diet and colorectal cancer: an ecological study and a hypothesis.

Unit of Health-Care Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Oxford University, Institute of Health Sciences, Oxford.
Journal of Epidemiology &amp Community Health (Impact Factor: 3.29). 11/2000; 54(10):756-60.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cancer in many western countries and is probably caused in part by dietary factors. Southern European countries have lower incidence rates of CRC than many other western countries. It was postulated that, because olive oil is thought to influence bile salt secretion patterns in rats, it may influence the occurrence of CRC. The purpose of this study was to compare national levels of dietary factors, with particular reference to olive oil, with national differences in CRC incidence.
Ecological study using existing international databases. Incidence rates for CRC, food supply data, and olive oil consumption data were extracted from published sources, combined, and analysed to calculate the correlations between CRC and 10 dietary factors. Associations were then explored using stepwise multiple regression.
28 countries from four continents.
76% of the intercountry variation in CRC incidence rates was explained by three significant dietary factors-meat, fish and olive oil-in combination. Meat and fish were positively associated, and olive oil was negatively associated, with CRC incidence.
Olive oil may have a protective effect on the development of CRC. The proposed hypothesis is that olive oil may influence secondary bile acid patterns in the colon that, in turn, might influence polyamine metabolism in colonic enterocytes in ways that reduce progression from normal mucosa to adenoma and carcinoma.

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    • "From ecologic comparison of 28 countries, 76% of the inter-country variation in colorectal cancer incidence rates could be attributed to three dietary factors: meat, fish and olive oil, in combination; meat and fish were found positively associated, whereas olive oil was negatively associated. The authors stated that olive oil could influence secondary bile acid patterns in the colon that, in turn, might influence polyamine metabolism in colonic cells reducing possibility to progression from normal mucosa to adenoma and, eventually, carcinoma [80]. Also, olive oil seems to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk, although there are no robust data to consider. "
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary fat, both in terms of quantity and quality, has been implicated to cancer development, either positively or negatively. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether olive oil or monounsaturated fat intake was associated with the development of cancer. A systematic search of relevant studies, published in English, between 1990 and March 1, 2011, was performed through a computer-assisted literature tool (i.e., Pubmed). In total 38 studies were initially allocated; of them 19 case-control studies were finally studied (13800 cancer patients and 23340 controls were included). Random effects meta-analysis was applied in order to evaluate the research hypothesis. It was found that compared with the lowest, the highest category of olive oil consumption was associated with lower odds of having any type of cancer (log odds ratio = -0.41, 95%CI -0.53, -0.29, Cohran's Q = 47.52, p = 0.0002, I-sq = 62%); the latter was irrespective of the country of origin (Mediterranean or non-Mediterranean). Moreover, olive oil consumption was associated with lower odds of developing breast cancer (logOR = -0,45 95%CI -0.78 to -0.12), and a cancer of the digestive system (logOR = -0,36 95%CI -0.50 to -0.21), compared with the lowest intake. The strength and consistency of the findings states a hypothesis about the protective role of olive oil intake on cancer risk. However, it is still unclear whether olive oil's monounsaturated fatty acid content or its antioxidant components are responsible for its beneficial effects.
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    • "Increasingly more research is being conducted into the potential health benefits of eating fish, with evidence to suggest that dietary fish may play a protective role in diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer, asthma and atopy (Caygill et al., 1996; Marckmann and Gronbaek 1999; Kobayashi et al., 1999; Stoneham et al., 2000; Kris-Etherton et al., 2002; Devereux and Seaton, 2003). The mechanism for this benefit has been proposed to be related to the content of omega-3 fatty acids in fish. "
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    ABSTRACT: To validate a detailed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire designed to measure habitual fish and seafood consumption. Cross-sectional validation study using an independent biomarker of fish consumption. Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia. Ninety-one healthy volunteers of both sexes aged 21-75 years. Participants completed the questionnaire and provided a fasting blood sample for erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) analysis. The questionnaire was then validated by linear regression analysis of EPA and DHA levels on categories of fish and seafood and overall consumption, adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, body mass index (BMI) and alcohol intake. Regression coefficients were statistically significant for most fish and seafood items with both EPA and DHA. The strongest association was observed between oily fish and EPA, whereas no significant association was observed between lean fish and omega-3 fatty acids. Variation in omega-3 fatty acids was best accounted for by a model containing variables representing different categories of fish and seafood consumption (R (2) 0.484), rather than a single variable representing overall fish and seafood consumption (R (2) 0.313). This study confirms that the varying content of omega-3 fatty acids in foods are reflected in omega-3 biomarkers, and that the questionnaire is a valid measure of fish consumption that enables differentiation between cooking and processing methods and oily versus lean fish intake.
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 09/2007; 61(8):1023-31. DOI:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602617 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    • "Cumulative evidence have showed a role of nutritional factors in the etiology of chronic diseases (Keys, 1970; World Cancer Research Fund, 1997), suggesting a linkage between dietary patterns and increased human longevity (Farchi et al., 1995; Osler and Schroll, 1997; Lasheras et al., 2000; Kant et al., 2000; Osler et al., 2001; Trichopoulou et al., 2003). Higher levels of consumption of olive oil are considered the hallmark of the traditional Mediterranean diet, and increasing evidence suggests that olive oil, with its high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyphenolic compounds, have a role in the prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD) (Keys, 1970), several types of cancer (Wolk et al., 1998; Stoneham et al., 2000), and it is inversely associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (Psaltopoulou et al., 2004). Furthermore, we found that in an older population of Southern Italy with a typical Mediterranean diet, high MUFA energy intake appeared to be associated with a high protection against age-related cognitive decline (Solfrizzi et al., 1999; Capurso et al., 2003; Solfrizzi et al., 2003; Panza et al., 2004). "
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