Effects of anabolic precursors on serum testosterone concentrations and adaptations to resistance training in young men.
ABSTRACT The effects of androgen precursors, combined with herbal extracts designed to enhance testosterone formation and reduce conversion of androgens to estrogens was studied in young men. Subjects performed 3 days of resistance training per week for 8 weeks. Each day during Weeks 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8, subjects consumed either placebo (PL; n = 10) or a supplement (ANDRO-6; n = 10), which contained daily doses of 300 mg androstenedione, 150 mg DHEA, 750 mg Tribulus terrestris, 625 mg Chrysin, 300 mg Indole-3-carbinol, and 540 mg Saw palmetto. Serum androstenedione concentrations were higher in ANDRO-6 after 2, 5, and 8 weeks (p <.05), while serum concentrations of free and total testosterone were unchanged in both groups. Serum estradiol was elevated at Weeks 2, 5, and 8 in ANDRO-6 (p <.05), and serum estrone was elevated at Weeks 5 and 8 (p <.05). Muscle strength increased (p <.05) similarly from Weeks 0 to 4, and again from Weeks 4 to 8 in both treatment groups. The acute effect of one third of the daily dose of ANDRO-6 and PL was studied in 10 men (23 +/- 4 years). Serum androstenedione concentrations were elevated (p <.05) in ANDRO-6 from 150 to 360 min after ingestion, while serum free or total testosterone concentrations were unchanged. These data provide evidence that the addition of these herbal extracts to androstenedione does not result in increased serum testosterone concentrations, reduce the estrogenic effect of androstenedione, and does not augment the adaptations to resistance training.
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUÇÃO: Os efeitos dos esteroides anabolizantes (EA) sobre a massa muscular e força são controversos e dependentes do treinamento realizado e das fibras musculares recrutadas. Com isso, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da associação de EA ao treinamento de força ou aeróbio sobre a hipertrofia e força muscular. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar (42) foram divididos em seis grupos: sedentário (SC, n = 7), sedentário anabolizante (SA, n = 7), treinado natação controle (TNC, n = 7), treinado natação anabolizante (TNA, n = 7), treinado força controle (TFC, n = 7) e treinado força anabolizante (TFA, n = 7). O EA foi administrado duas vezes por semana (10mg/kg/semana). Os protocolos de treinamento foram realizados durante 10 semanas, cinco sessões semanais. Foram avaliadas a hipertrofia dos músculos sóleo, plantar e gastrocnêmio (massa muscular corrigida pelo comprimento da tíbia), a proteína total muscular (Bradford) e a força muscular em patas traseiras (testes de resistência à inclinação). RESULTADOS: Não foram observadas diferenças significantes na hipertrofia do músculo sóleo. Os grupos TFC e TFA apresentaram, respectivamente, hipertrofia de 18% e 31% no músculo plantar comparado ao grupo SC. A hipertrofia foi 13% maior no grupo TFA em relação ao grupo TFC. Resultados semelhantes foram encontrados no músculo gastrocnêmio. Os grupos TFC e TFA apresentaram significantes aumentos na quantidade total de proteína nos músculos plantares, sendo essa mais pronunciada no grupo TFA e positivamente correlaciona a hipertrofia muscular. Observamos aumento de força nas patas traseiras nos grupos TCF e TAF. CONCLUSÃO: A administração de EA ou sua associação ao treinamento aeróbio não aumenta a massa muscular e força. Porém, à associação ao treinamento de força leva a maior hipertrofia muscular em fibras glicolíticas. Portanto, o tipo de treinamento físico, recrutamento muscular e características das fibras musculares, parecem ter importante impacto sobre as respostas anabólicas induzidas pelo EA.Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte 06/2011; 17(3):212-217. · 0.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: Prohormone supplements(PS) are recognized not to impart anabolic or ergogenic effects in men, but the research supporting these conclusions is dated. The Anabolic Steroid Control Act was amended in 2004; the viability of PS have not been evaluated since that time. Methods:17 resistance-trained males(23±1yrs; 13.1±1.5% body fat) were randomly assigned to receive either 330mg/d 3b-hydroxy-5a-androst-1-en-17-one(PROHORMONE; n=9) or sugar(PLACEBO; n=8) p.o. and complete a 4 week(16 session) structured resistance-training program. Body composition, muscular strength, circulating lipids, and markers of liver and kidney dysfunction were assessed at study onset and termination. Results:PROHORMONE increased lean body mass by 6.3±1.2%, decreased fat body mass by 24.6±7.1%, and increased their back squat 1-RM and competition total by 14.3±1.5% and 12.8±1.1%; respectively. These improvements exceeded(p<0.05) PLACEBO, who increased lean body mass by 0.5±0.8%, reduced fat body mass by 9.5±3.6%, and increased back squat 1-RM and competition total by 5.7±1.7% and 5.9±1.7%; respectively. PROHORMONE also experienced multiple adverse effects. These included a 38.7±4.0% reduction in HDL (p<0.01), a 32.8±15.05% elevation in LDL (p<0.01), and elevations of 120.0±22.6% and 77.4±12.0% in LDL/HDL and C/HDL; respectively(both p<0.01). PROHORMONE also exhibited elevations in serum creatinine (19.6±4.3%;p<0.01) and AST(113.8±61.1%;p=0.05), as well as reductions in serum albumin (5.1±1.9%;p=0.04), ALP(16.4±4.7%;p=0.04), and GFR(18.0±3.3%;p=0.04). None of these values changed(all p>0.05) in PLACEBO. Conclusion:The oral PS 3b-hydroxy-5a-androst-1-en-17-one improves body composition and muscular strength. However, these changes come at a significant cost. Cardiovascular health and liver function are particularly compromised. Given these findings, we feel the harm associated with this particular PS outweighs any potential benefit.Journal of Applied Physiology 12/2013; · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Tribulus terrestris (TT) is a dicotyledonous herbal plant of the Zygophyllaceae family. In ancient medicine, extracts of the aerial parts and fruits have been used for its diuretic, tonic, and aphrodisiac properties. Today, TT is widely used by athletes and bodybuilders based on the belief, fueled by claims in marketing information, that it can enhance testosterone concentrations. To assess TT's effect on testosterone levels in human and animals, an electronic literature search out using seven databases and the patent database up to August 2013 was carried out. Randomized control trials, which included healthy human subjects ingesting TT as sole or combined supplement, along with animal studies with TT as a sole treatment across a number of species were included. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria, including one patent application. The results showed that trials varied in duration, dosage and supplementation with TT as sole or combined treatment, rendering meta-analysis impossible. A limited number of animal studies displayed a significant increase in serum testosterone levels after TT administration, but this effect was only noted in humans when TT was part of a combined supplement administration. Literature available for the effectiveness of TT on enhancing testosterone concentrations is limited. Evidence to date suggests that TT is ineffective for increasing testosterone levels in humans, thus marketing claims are unsubstantiated. The nitric oxide release effect of TT may offer a plausible explanation for the observed physiological responses to TT supplementation, independent of the testosterone level.Journal of Dietary Supplements 03/2014; 11(1):64-79.