Ex vivo activity of XR5000 against solid tumors.
ABSTRACT Topoisomerases I and II unravel DNA during transcription, DNA replication and DNA repair. Inhibitors of both enzymes are important anticancer drugs, but only now are combined inhibitors becoming available for clinical use. In this study we have used an ATP-based chemosensitivity assay to determine the activity of XR5000 and possible combinations against ovarian cancer, a tumor sensitive to current topoisomerase inhibitors, and melanoma, an insensitive tumor. A further six tumors of other types were also tested. The results from 20 ovarian cancer and 18 melanoma biopsies show remarkably little difference between the tumor types in terms of IC50, IC90 or two summary indices of chemosensitivity based on all of the concentrations tested. XR5000 on its own shows a steep concentration-response curve in most tumors, only achieving high reduction (above 95%) of ATP levels at 2440 ng/ml (6 microM). The results were often similar to the combination of etoposide and topotecan, particularly at the higher concentrations tested. The combinations with greatest activity in ovarian cancer were with paclitaxel or cisplatin, while melanoma showed greatest improvement with paclitaxel or treosulfan. The results are encouraging for the clinical introduction of this agent, and suggest that it will be effective in combination with currently available drugs for both ovarian cancer and melanoma.
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ABSTRACT: XR5944 (MLN944) is a novel DNA targeting agent with potent antitumor activity, both in vitro and in vivo, against several murine and human tumor models. We have used an ATP-tumor chemosensitivity assay to assess the ex vivo sensitivity of a variety of solid tumors (n = 90) and a CCRF-CEM leukemia cell line selected with XR5944. Differences in gene expression between the parental CCRF-CEM and the resistant subline were investigated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Immunohistochemistry for topoisomerases I and IIalpha and multidrug resistance (MDR1) protein was done on those tumors for which tissue was available (n = 32). The CCRF-CEM XR5944 line showed increased mRNA levels of MDR1, major vault protein, and MDR-associated protein 1 compared with the parental line, whereas the expression of topoisomerases I, IIalpha, and IIbeta was essentially unchanged, suggesting that XR5944 is susceptible to MDR mechanisms. The median IC90 and IC50 values for XR5944 in tumor-derived cells were 68 and 26 nmol/L, respectively, 6-fold greater than in resistant cell lines. XR5944 was 40- to 300-fold more potent than the other cytotoxics tested, such as doxorubicin, topotecan, and paclitaxel. Breast and gynecologic malignancies were most sensitive to XR5944, whereas gastrointestinal tumors showed greater resistance. A positive correlation (r = 0.68; P < 0.0001) was found between the IC50 values of XR5944 and P-glycoprotein/MDR1 staining but not with either topoisomerase I or IIalpha immunohistochemistry index. These data support the rapid introduction of XR5944 to clinical trials and suggest that it may be effective against a broad spectrum of tumor types, especially ovarian and breast cancer.Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 12/2004; 3(12):1631-7. · 5.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Liposomal doxorubicin (Caelyx/Doxil) has been shown to be active in around 20% of recurrent ovarian cancers. As yet, there is little clinical data on combinations of existing agents with liposomal doxorubicin, despite considerable clinical experience with soluble doxorubicin in combination. In this study, we have used an ATP-based tumor chemosensitivity assay to determine the relative efficacy of high concentrations of doxorubicin tested in combination with cisplatin, treosulfan, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or vinorelbine against cells obtained from recurrent ovarian tumor tissue. The results show little enhancement of the efficacy of high concentrations of doxorubicin by 5-FU, cisplatin, or treosulfan. However, vinorelbine+liposomal doxorubicin showed additive inhibition, and this combination is worthy of further testing in clinical trials.Anti-Cancer Drugs 08/2002; 13(6):625-30. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The tricyclic antidepressants have previously been shown to exert activity against glioma cells in vitro. Initial studies in cell lines suggested that this might extend to melanoma cells. We have therefore conducted a study in primary cell cultures from metastatic cutaneous melanoma deposits using a well established ATP-based tumour chemosensitivity assay to confirm and extend these findings. Two cell lines and eight primary cell cultures from metastatic melanoma deposits were exposed to three tricyclic drugs, amitriptyline, nortriptyline and clomipramine, at concentrations ranging from 200 to 6.25 µmol/l in the ATP-based tumour chemosensitivity assay. All three drugs showed activity, although nortriptyline was more active than clomipramine or amitriptyline in both cell lines and primary cell cultures, with an IC50 of 9, 27 and 33 µmol/l, respectively. Tricyclic agents show activity against melanoma in vitro. This could be related to the lysosomal effects based on their cationic amphiphilic properties, or effects at the mitochondrial membrane.Anti-cancer drugs 09/2011; 23(1):65-9. · 2.23 Impact Factor