Effect of parasitism on respiration rates of adults of different Artemia strains from Spain.
ABSTRACT The effect of cestode parasitism on the respiration rate (MO2) of different strains of Artemia from wild populations of Spain was studied. Respiration rates (MO2) of adults from each strain were not affected by the presence of cysticercoids of Flamingolepis liguloides or Hymenolepis stellorae (Cestode, Hymenolepididae). This finding could be related to the absence of reproductive activity (parasite castration) in parasitized females.
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ABSTRACT: Brine shrimp, Artemia spp., act as intermediate hosts for a range of cestode species that use waterbirds as their final hosts. These parasites can have marked influences on shrimp behavior and fecundity, generating the potential for cascading effects in hypersaline food webs. We present the first comprehensive study of the temporal dynamics of cestode parasites in natural populations of brine shrimp throughout the annual cycle. Over a 12-month period, clonal Artemia parthenogenetica were sampled in the Odiel marshes in Huelva, and the sexual Artemia salina was sampled in the Salinas de Cerrillos in Almería. Throughout the year, 4-45 % of A. parthenogenetica were infected with cestodes (mean species richness = 0.26), compared to 27-72 % of A. salina (mean species richness = 0.64). Ten cestode species were recorded. Male and female A. salina showed similar levels of parasitism. The most prevalent and abundant cestodes were those infecting the most abundant final hosts, especially the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber. In particular, the flamingo parasite Flamingolepis liguloides had a prevalence of up to 43 % in A. parthenogenetica and 63.5 % in A. salina in a given month. Although there was strong seasonal variation in prevalence, abundance, and intensity of cestode infections, seasonal changes in bird counts were weak predictors of the dynamics of cestode infections. However, infection levels of Confluaria podicipina in A. parthenogenetica were positively correlated with the number of their black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis hosts. Similarly, infection levels of Anomotaenia tringae and Anomotaenia microphallos in A. salina were correlated with the number of shorebird hosts present the month before. Correlated seasonal transmission structured the cestode community, leading to more multiple infections than expected by chance.Parasitology Research 03/2013; · 2.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The majority of true parasitoids manipulate their host's physiology for their own benefit. In this study, we documented the physiological changes that occurred in major soldiers of the subterranean termite Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen) (Isoptera: Termitidae) parasitized by the koinobiont larval endoparasitoid Misotermes mindeni Disney and Neoh (Diptera: Phoridae). We compared the metabolic rate, body water content, body water loss rate, cuticular permeability, and desiccation tolerance between parasitized and unparasitized major soldiers. The metabolic rate of parasitized hosts was significantly higher than that of unparasitized termites. Mean total body water content of parasitized major soldiers (64.73±3.26%) was significantly lower than that of unparasitized termites (71.99±2.23%). Parasitized hosts also had significantly lower total body water loss rates (5.72±0.06%/h) and higher cuticular permeability (49.37±11.26 μg/cm/h/mmHg) than unparasitized major soldiers (6.75±0.16%/h and 60.76±24.98 μg/cm/h/mmHg, respectively). Parasitized major soldiers survived almost twice as long as unparasitized termites (LT(50)=6.66 h and LT(50)=3.40 h, respectively) and they had significantly higher tolerance to water loss compared to unparasitized termites (45.28±6.79% and 32.84±7.69%, respectively). Body lipid content in parasitized hosts (19.84±6.27%) was significantly higher than that of unparasitized termites (6.17±7.87%). Finally, parasitized hosts had a significantly lower percentage of cuticular water content than unparasitized major soldiers (10.97±1.84% and 13.17±2.21%, respectively). Based on these data, we conclude that the parasitism-induced physiological changes in the host are beneficial to the parasitoids as the alterations can clearly increase the parasite's chances of survival when exposed to extreme environmental conditions and ensure that the parasitoids are able to complete their larval development successfully before the host dies.Journal of insect physiology 08/2011; 57(11):1495-500. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the host specificity of two cryptic microsporidian species (Anostracospora rigaudi and Enterocytospora artemiae) infecting invasive (Artemia franciscana) and native (Artemia parthenogenetica) hosts in sympatry. Anostracospora rigaudi was on average four times more prevalent in the native host, whereas E. artemiae was three times more prevalent in the invasive host. Infection with An. rigaudi strongly reduced female reproduction in both host species, whereas infection with E. artemiae had weaker effects on female reproduction. We contrasted microsporidian prevalence in native A. franciscana populations (New World) and in both invaded and non-invaded Artemia populations (Old World). At a community level, microsporidian prevalence was twice as high in native compared with invasive hosts, due to the contrasting host-specificity of An. rigaudi and E. artemiae. At a higher biogeographical level, microsporidian prevalence in A. franciscana did not differ between the invaded populations and the native populations used for the introduction. Although E. artemiae was the only species found both in New and Old World populations, no evidence of its co-introduction with the invasive host was found in our experimental and phylogeographic tests. These results suggest that the success of invasion by A. franciscana invasion is probably due to a lower susceptibility to virulent microsporidian parasites rather than to decreased microsporidian prevalence compared with A. parthenogenetica or to lower virulence in introduced areas.International journal for parasitology 07/2013; · 3.39 Impact Factor