Effect of parasitism on respiration rates of adults of different Artemia strains from Spain.
ABSTRACT The effect of cestode parasitism on the respiration rate (MO2) of different strains of Artemia from wild populations of Spain was studied. Respiration rates (MO2) of adults from each strain were not affected by the presence of cysticercoids of Flamingolepis liguloides or Hymenolepis stellorae (Cestode, Hymenolepididae). This finding could be related to the absence of reproductive activity (parasite castration) in parasitized females.
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ABSTRACT: The majority of true parasitoids manipulate their host's physiology for their own benefit. In this study, we documented the physiological changes that occurred in major soldiers of the subterranean termite Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen) (Isoptera: Termitidae) parasitized by the koinobiont larval endoparasitoid Misotermes mindeni Disney and Neoh (Diptera: Phoridae). We compared the metabolic rate, body water content, body water loss rate, cuticular permeability, and desiccation tolerance between parasitized and unparasitized major soldiers. The metabolic rate of parasitized hosts was significantly higher than that of unparasitized termites. Mean total body water content of parasitized major soldiers (64.73±3.26%) was significantly lower than that of unparasitized termites (71.99±2.23%). Parasitized hosts also had significantly lower total body water loss rates (5.72±0.06%/h) and higher cuticular permeability (49.37±11.26 μg/cm/h/mmHg) than unparasitized major soldiers (6.75±0.16%/h and 60.76±24.98 μg/cm/h/mmHg, respectively). Parasitized major soldiers survived almost twice as long as unparasitized termites (LT(50)=6.66 h and LT(50)=3.40 h, respectively) and they had significantly higher tolerance to water loss compared to unparasitized termites (45.28±6.79% and 32.84±7.69%, respectively). Body lipid content in parasitized hosts (19.84±6.27%) was significantly higher than that of unparasitized termites (6.17±7.87%). Finally, parasitized hosts had a significantly lower percentage of cuticular water content than unparasitized major soldiers (10.97±1.84% and 13.17±2.21%, respectively). Based on these data, we conclude that the parasitism-induced physiological changes in the host are beneficial to the parasitoids as the alterations can clearly increase the parasite's chances of survival when exposed to extreme environmental conditions and ensure that the parasitoids are able to complete their larval development successfully before the host dies.Journal of insect physiology 08/2011; 57(11):1495-500. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adult crustaceans of the genus Artemia (brine shrimps) are intermediate hosts in the life cycle of cestode species parasitic in aquatic birds as their definitive hosts. However, there are no data on the role of larval and juvenile brine shrimps in the transmission of avian helminth parasites. In order to examine the possible role of early developmental stages (nauplii, metanauplii and juveniles) of Artemia for the circulation of avian cestodes, the natural cestode infection in the population of Artemia parthenogenetica from La Mata Lagoon, Mediterranean coast of Spain, was studied. Metacestodes (cysticercoids) of four cestode species were recorded in adult brine shrimps: Flamingolepis liguloides and Flamingolepis flamingo (hymenolepidids parasitic in flamingos), Confluaria podicipina (a hymenolepidid species parasitic in grebes) and Eurycestus avoceti (a dilepidid species parasitic in avocets, stilts, plovers and, to a lesser extent, in flamingos). No cysticercoids were found in nauplii. Two species, F. liguloides and F. flamingo, were found in metanauplii and juvenile brine shrimps. Only 36.3% of the cysticercoids of F. liguloides occurred in adult brine shrimps; the remaining 63.7% were parasitic in metanauplii (39.6%) and juveniles (24.1%). Similarly, the metacestodes of F. flamingo were also distributed among various age groups: in adults (44.4% of cysticercoids), juveniles (27.8%) and metanauplii (27.8%). These results indicate that the early developmental stages of Artemia have an important role for the circulation of certain parasite species. No cysticercoids of C. podicipina and E. avoceti were recorded in larval and juvenile brine shrimps. The selective infestation of larval brine shrimps with flamingo parasites is probably associated with the feeding behaviour of definitive hosts, which are filtering predators; in contrast, grebes and waders pick brine shrimps individually one by one. The possible underlying mechanism for selective infestation of metanauplii and adults by certain cestode species is associated with the size of parasite eggs, allowing only cestode species with small eggs to be ingested by larval brine shrimps.Parasitology Research 10/2010; 108(4):905-12. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Brine shrimp, Artemia spp., act as intermediate hosts for a range of cestode species that use waterbirds as their final hosts. These parasites can have marked influences on shrimp behavior and fecundity, generating the potential for cascading effects in hypersaline food webs. We present the first comprehensive study of the temporal dynamics of cestode parasites in natural populations of brine shrimp throughout the annual cycle. Over a 12-month period, clonal Artemia parthenogenetica were sampled in the Odiel marshes in Huelva, and the sexual Artemia salina was sampled in the Salinas de Cerrillos in Almería. Throughout the year, 4-45 % of A. parthenogenetica were infected with cestodes (mean species richness = 0.26), compared to 27-72 % of A. salina (mean species richness = 0.64). Ten cestode species were recorded. Male and female A. salina showed similar levels of parasitism. The most prevalent and abundant cestodes were those infecting the most abundant final hosts, especially the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber. In particular, the flamingo parasite Flamingolepis liguloides had a prevalence of up to 43 % in A. parthenogenetica and 63.5 % in A. salina in a given month. Although there was strong seasonal variation in prevalence, abundance, and intensity of cestode infections, seasonal changes in bird counts were weak predictors of the dynamics of cestode infections. However, infection levels of Confluaria podicipina in A. parthenogenetica were positively correlated with the number of their black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis hosts. Similarly, infection levels of Anomotaenia tringae and Anomotaenia microphallos in A. salina were correlated with the number of shorebird hosts present the month before. Correlated seasonal transmission structured the cestode community, leading to more multiple infections than expected by chance.Parasitology Research 03/2013; · 2.85 Impact Factor