Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor expression in the neurons and glia of developing rat cerebellum: an autoradiographic and immunohistochemical analysis
ABSTRACT Quantitative autoradiography (using [125I]human alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide as a ligand) and immunofluorescence (using monoclonal antibodies directed against a purified receptor) followed by confocal analysis were applied to analyse the distribution and cellular localization of the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor in the rat cerebellum during development. From late embryonic days to the end of the second postnatal week, during the time window of calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in climbing fibers, high levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide binding sites were found in the white matter, where immunolabeling was present in oligodendrocytes. Lower levels were found in the cerebellar cortex, where receptor immunolabeling was found in Bergmann glia in a presumptive cell surface location and, during the second postnatal week, also in the cytoplasm of Purkinje cells. From the end of the second postnatal week to adulthood, when calcitonin gene-related peptide is no longer present in climbing fibers, the number of calcitonin gene-related peptide binding sites increased in the molecular layer, where not only Bergmann glia but also Purkinje cell distal dendritic branchlets were immunolabeled in a presumptive cell surface location. Concomitantly, the number of calcitonin gene-related peptide binding sites sharply decreased in the white matter. The developmental expression of the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor and the previously described proliferating/differentiating effects of the peptide on glial cells suggest that calcitonin gene-related peptide and its receptor may promote a coordinated development of cerebellar glial cells, an effect driven mainly by the calcitonin gene-related peptide released by climbing fibers. As a result of glia-neuron interactions, an indirect effect on the differentiation of the cerebellar neuronal circuitry is also likely to occur.
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ABSTRACT: Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) inhibits microglia inflammatory activation in vitro. We here analyzed the involvement of CGRP and Receptor Component Protein (RCP) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Alpha-CGRP deficiency increased EAE scores which followed the scale alpha-CGRP null>heterozygote>wild type. In wild type mice, CGRP delivery into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 1) reduced chronic EAE (C-EAE) signs, 2) inhibited microglia activation (revealed by quantitative shape analysis), and 3) did not alter GFAP expression, cell density, lymphocyte infiltration, and peripheral lymphocyte production of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-17, IL-2, and IL-4. RCP (probe for receptor involvement) was expressed in white matter microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and vascular-endothelial cells: in EAE, also in infiltrating lymphocytes. In relapsing-remitting EAE (R-EAE) RCP increased during relapse, without correlation with lymphocyte density. RCP nuclear localization (stimulated by CGRP in vitro) was I) increased in microglia and decreased in astrocytes (R-EAE), and II) increased in microglia by CGRP CSF delivery (C-EAE). Calcitonin like receptor was rarely localized in nuclei of control and relapse mice. CGRP increased in motoneurons. In conclusion, CGRP can inhibit microglia activation in vivo in EAE. CGRP and its receptor may represent novel protective factors in EAE, apparently acting through the differential cell-specific intracellular translocation of RCP.Journal of neuroimmunology 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2014.03.008 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cerebellum is classically considered to be mainly involved in motor processing, but studies have suggested several other functions, including pain processing. Calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide involved in migraine pathology, where there is elevated release of CGRP during migraine attacks and CGRP receptor antagonists have antimigraine efficacy. In the present study, we examined CGRP and CGRP receptor binding sites and protein expression in primate cerebellar cortex. Additionally, mRNA expression of the CGRP receptor components, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), was examined. In addition, expression of procalcitonin was studied. We observed high [(3)H]MK-3207 (CGRP receptor antagonist) binding densities in the molecular layer of rhesus cerebellar cortex; however, due to the limit of resolution of the autoradiographic image the exact cellular localization could not be determined. Similarly, [(125)I]CGRP binding was observed in the molecular layer and Purkinje cell layer of human cerebellum. CLR and RAMP1 mRNA was expressed within the Purkinje cell layer and some expression was found in the molecular layer. Immunofluorescence revealed expression of CGRP, CLR, and RAMP1 in the Purkinje cells and in cells in the molecular layer. Procalcitonin was found in the same localization. Recent research in the biology of cerebellum indicates that it may have a role in nociception. For the first time we have identified CGRP and CGRP receptor binding sites together with CGRP receptor expression through protein and mRNA localization in primate cerebellar cortex. These results point toward a functional role of CGRP in cerebellum. Further efforts are needed to evaluate this.The Cerebellum 08/2013; 12(6). DOI:10.1007/s12311-013-0509-4 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a well-studied neuropeptide of relevance for migraine pathophysiology. Jugular levels of CGRP are increased during migraine attacks, and intravenous CGRP administration induces migraine-like headache in most individuals with migraine. Several CGRP receptor antagonists (CGRP-RAs) were shown to be effective for the acute treatment of migraine, validating the target for the treatment of migraine. However, for a number of reasons, including issues of liver toxicity with chronic use, the development of CGRP-RAs has yet to produce a viable clinical therapeutic. Development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the CGRP pathway is an alternative approach that should avoid many of the issues seen with CGRP-RAs. The exquisite target specificity, prolonged half-lives, and reduced potential for hepatotoxicity and drug-drug interactions make mAbs suitable for the preventive treatment of migraine headaches. This manuscript provides an overview of the role of CGRP in the pathophysiology of migraine, followed by a review of the clinical development of CGRP-RAs. Some basic concepts on antibodies are then discussed along with the publicly disclosed information on the development of mAbs targeting the CGRP pathway.CNS Drugs 03/2014; DOI:10.1007/s40263-014-0156-4 · 4.38 Impact Factor