High Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Binding in Asymptomatic Bipolar I Disorder: Sex Differences and Cognitive Correlates
ABSTRACT It has been hypothesized that anomalies in monoaminergic function underlie some of the manifestations of bipolar disorder. In this study the authors examined the possibility that trait-related abnormalities in the concentration of monoaminergic synaptic terminals may be present in patients with asymptomatic bipolar disorder type I.
The concentration of a stable presynaptic marker, the vesicular monoamine transporter protein (VMAT2), was quantified with (+)[(11)C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) and positron emission tomography. Sixteen asymptomatic patients with bipolar I disorder who had a prior history of mania with psychosis (nine men and seven women) and individually matched healthy subjects were studied. Correlational analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between regional VMAT2 binding, cognitive function, and clinical variables.
VMAT2 binding in the thalamus and ventral brainstem of the bipolar patients was higher than that in the comparison subjects. VMAT2 concentrations in these regions correlated with performance on measures of frontal, executive function. In addition, sex differences in VMAT2 binding were detected in the thalamus of the bipolar patients; the male patients had higher binding than the women. No sex differences in binding were observed in the healthy comparison group.
These initial results suggest that higher than normal VMAT2 expression and, by extension, concentration of monoaminergic synaptic terminals, may represent a trait-related abnormality in patients with bipolar I disorder and that male and female patients show different patterns. Also, VMAT2 concentrations may be associated with some of the cognitive deficits encountered in euthymic bipolar disorder.
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ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Currently, diagnosis of Parkinson disease is mainly based on clinical criteria characterized by motor symptoms including bradykinesia, rigidity, resting tremor, and postural instability. Reliable in vivo biomarkers to monitor disease severity and reflect the underlying dopaminergic degeneration are important for future disease-modifying therapy in Parkinson disease. OBJECTIVES To use [18F]9-fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine (18F-DTBZ; [18F]AV-133) positron emission tomography (PET) to explore the characteristics of vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 imaging in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) with different severity levels as well as to investigate its capability in monitoring clinical severity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Regional uptakes for 18F-DTBZ PET of different disease stages were measured. Seventeen healthy control participants and 53 patients in 3 groups of mild, moderate, and advanced stages of PD were recruited for 18F-DTBZ PET scans from the Movement Disorders Clinic in the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The severity of disease in patients with PD was quantified by modified Hoehn-Yahr Scale, Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale total scores and subscores of posture instability and gait disturbance, tremor, akinesia, and rigidity while not taking medication. Both voxelwise- and volume of interest-based image analyses were performed. The specific uptake ratio (SUR) of each volume of interest and voxel was calculated as (target uptake - reference uptake) / reference uptake using the occipital reference region from magnetic resonance imaging-based spatially normalized 18F-DTBZ images for each participant. Average SUR images were displayed as 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional to illustrate the image patterns in each group. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test on regional SUR was used for group comparison between healthy control participants and patients with PD at different stages. Quantitative parameters were correlated with severity of disease and disease duration by Spearman correlation. Voxelwise analysis for evaluating dopaminergic neuron decline of different PD stages was performed by SPM5. RESULTS The 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional 18F-DTBZ PET images demonstrated that the reduction of vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 availability was obviously correlated with the severity of disease in patients with PD. The mean reductions of vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 density for the caudate, putamen, and substantia nigra were 27.29%, 63.26%, and 31.03% for mild PD; 61.76%, 81.54%, and 48.41% for moderate PD; and 81.78%, 89.47%, and 66.62% for advanced PD, respectively. The SURs of bilateral striatal regions exhibited significantly exponential correlations to stage; disease duration; Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor score; posture instability and gait disturbance; and akinesia, rigidity, and tremor scores. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In PD, 18F-DTBZ PET is a potential imaging biomarker for measuring dopaminergic degeneration in vivo and monitoring the severity of disease.04/2014; 71(6). DOI:10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.290
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ABSTRACT: Disruption of functional connectivity may be a key feature of bipolar disorder (BD) which reflects disturbances of synchronization and oscillations within brain networks. We investigated whether the resting electroencephalogram (EEG) in patients with BD showed altered synchronization or network properties. Resting-state EEG was recorded in 57 BD type-I patients and 87 healthy control subjects. Functional connectivity between pairs of EEG channels was measured using synchronization likelihood (SL) for 5 frequency bands (δ, θ, α, β, and γ). Graph-theoretic analysis was applied to SL over the electrode array to assess network properties. BD patients showed a decrease of mean synchronization in the alpha band, and the decreases were greatest in fronto-central and centro-parietal connections. In addition, the clustering coefficient and global efficiency were decreased in BD patients, whereas the characteristic path length increased. We also found that the normalized characteristic path length and small-worldness were significantly correlated with depression scores in BD patients. These results suggest that BD patients show impaired neural synchronization at rest and a disruption of resting-state functional connectivity.01/2013; 2:414-23. DOI:10.1016/j.nicl.2013.03.007
Can I Play with Madness? Metal Dissonance, Madness and Alienation, Edited by C.A. McKinnon, N. Scott & K. Sollee, 01/2011: chapter Can progressive metal’s narrative inform social stigma theory? Pain of Salvation’s The Perfect Element Parts 1 and 2 as examples.: pages 41-50; Oxford: Inter-Disciplinary Press..