The 12-month prevalence and risk factors for major depressive episode in Finland: representative sample of 5993 adults
ABSTRACT This study reports the 12-month prevalence of major depressive episode and its risk factors in a representative nationwide sample.
A random sample of non-institutionalized Finnish individuals aged 15-75 years (N = 5993) was interviewed in 1996. Major depressive episode during the last 12 months was assessed using the Short Form of the University of Michigan version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (the UM-CIDI Short Form).
The population prevalence of major depressive episode was 9.3% [95% CI 8.5,10.0], and the age-adjusted prevalences for females and males were 10.9% [95% CI 9.7,12.0] and 7.2 [95% CI 6.2,8.2], respectively. In logistic regression analyses the factors associated with major depressive episode after adjustment for age were urban residency, smoking, alcohol intoxication and chronic medical conditions. In addition, being single and obese were found to be risk factors for males.
The female to male risk ratio for major depressive episode was smaller than in many previous studies. The sex-specific risk factor associations warrant further investigation into sex differences in depression.
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ABSTRACT: Prevalence differences in depressive symptoms between the sexes typically emerge in adolescence, with symptoms more prevalent among girls. Some evidence suggests that variation in onset and progression of puberty might contribute to these differences. This study used a genetically informative, longitudinal (assessed at ages 12, 14, and 17) sample of Finnish adolescent twins (N = 1214, 51.6% female) to test whether etiological influences on depressive symptoms differ as a function of pubertal status. These tests were conducted separately by sex, and explored longitudinal relationships. Results indicated that pubertal development moderates environmental influences on depressive symptoms. These factors are more important on age 14 depressive symptoms among more developed girls relative to their less developed peers, but decrease in influence on age 17 depressive symptoms. The same effects are observed in boys, but are delayed, paralleling the delay in pubertal development in boys compared to girls. Thus, the importance of environmental influences on depressive symptoms during adolescence changes as a function of pubertal development, and the timing of this effect differs across the sexes.Journal of Youth and Adolescence 12/2010; 40(10):1383-93. DOI:10.1007/s10964-010-9617-3 · 2.72 Impact Factor
Chapter: Navigating the worlds of information[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This chapter presents how best to navigate the systematized body of knowledge that constitutes women’s mental health services. The authors integrate the disparate disciplines involved in women’s mental health into a working framework focused on information-seeking behaviors.A public health perspective of women's mental health, Edited by Marion A. Becker, Bruce Lubotsky Levin, 01/2010: chapter Navigating the worlds of information: pages 373-390; Springer., ISBN: 978-1-4419-1525-2
Chapter: HIV/AIDS and Mental Disorders[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Despite advances in treatment that have resulted in decreased mortality and hospitalizations, and improved quality of life, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains a life-long, life-threatening, infectious disease that requires ongoing medical intervention and monitoring as well as intervention to reduce risk of reinfection and transmission to others. Women with HIV face many challenges in obtaining medical care, accessing services, and dealing with life circumstances that often interfere with quality self-care. Women with HIV and mental illness face additional social, economic, and healthcare challenges that are different than those that occur for the general population, as well as an increased risk of infection and decreased ability to obtain proper treatment.12/2009: pages 185-198;