This study reports the 12-month prevalence of major depressive episode and its risk factors in a representative nationwide sample.
A random sample of non-institutionalized Finnish individuals aged 15-75 years (N = 5993) was interviewed in 1996. Major depressive episode during the last 12 months was assessed using the Short Form of the University of Michigan version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (the UM-CIDI Short Form).
The population prevalence of major depressive episode was 9.3% [95% CI 8.5,10.0], and the age-adjusted prevalences for females and males were 10.9% [95% CI 9.7,12.0] and 7.2 [95% CI 6.2,8.2], respectively. In logistic regression analyses the factors associated with major depressive episode after adjustment for age were urban residency, smoking, alcohol intoxication and chronic medical conditions. In addition, being single and obese were found to be risk factors for males.
The female to male risk ratio for major depressive episode was smaller than in many previous studies. The sex-specific risk factor associations warrant further investigation into sex differences in depression.
"Most epidemiological studies report a significant, but relatively small effect of the number of years of education on the risk of MDD. While higher education was associated with lower rates of mood disorder in a pan-European study (Alonso et al., 2004), and in Holland those with the fewest years of education had the highest morbidity rates (Bijl et al., 1998), in Finland no significant difference between different educational groups was found (however the OR between the lowest and highest income groups, which is correlated with educational attainment, was 1.93) (Lindeman et al., 2000). In the National Comorbidity Survey the association of educational status was largely confined to predicting highly comorbid MDD (Kessler et al., 2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Years of education are inversely related to the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), but the relationship between the clinical features of MDD and educational status is poorly understood. We investigated this in 1970 Chinese women with recurrent MDD identified in a clinical setting.
Clinical and demographic features were obtained from 1970 Han Chinese women with DSM-IV major depression between 30 and 60 years of age across China. Analysis of linear, logistic and multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between educational level and clinical features of MDD.
Subjects with more years of education are more likely to have MDD, with an odds ratio of 1.14 for those with more than ten years. Low educational status is not associated with an increase in the number of episodes, nor with increased rates of co-morbidity with anxiety disorders. Education impacts differentially on the symptoms of depression: lower educational attainment is associated with more biological symptoms and increased suicidal ideation and plans to commit suicide.
Findings may not generalize to males or to other patient populations. Since the threshold for treatment seeking differs as a function of education there may an ascertainment bias in the sample.
The relationship between symptoms of MDD and educational status in Chinese women is unexpectedly complex. Our findings are inconsistent with the simple hypothesis from European and US reports that low levels of educational attainment increase the risk and severity of MDD.
"The declining MDD trend was again present in data from the 1997 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing of Adults (NSMHWB) of Australia, which reported that prevalence of all affective disorders decreased from 7.3% in ages 45–54, 6.9% in ages 55–64, to 2.4% in ages ≥65 (McLennan 1997). Finally, in a study of nearly 6,000 Finnish adults, which used the Short Form of the University of Michigan version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to classify 12-month prevalence of MDEs, there was no declining trend with age (Lindeman et al. 2000). Rather, women between the ages of 45 and 54 had a higher 12-month prevalence rate (13.6%) than the older age cohorts of 55–64 (8.6%) and 65–75 (8.4%) (Lindeman et al. 2000). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Frequently, we think of service delivery in an abstract way, as if human emotions and human life experiences play little if
any role in the “delivery” of services. The words themselves give rise to images of help being sent through a mail slot or
dropped down the chimney like the legendary stork carrying a new baby. But clearly that is a rationalization we use, perhaps
to protect our discourse from the messiness of all-too-human emotions.
A Public Health Perspective of Women’s Mental Health, Edited by M. Becker and B. Levin, 12/2010: pages 295-311; Springer.
"At age 12, the sexes do not differ in their endorsement of depressive symptoms, but by age 14 girls report higher levels of symptoms, a difference that persists to age 17. Again, without later data we cannot know whether boys " catch up " with girls in terms of depressive symptoms, but evidence from other studies would suggest that these sex differences persist throughout adulthood (Lindeman et al. 2000). This persistence could be partially attributable to continued relevance of environmental influences experienced during adolescence; to environmental factors that only become relevant in early adulthood; and/or to later genetic innovation. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prevalence differences in depressive symptoms between the sexes typically emerge in adolescence, with symptoms more prevalent among girls. Some evidence suggests that variation in onset and progression of puberty might contribute to these differences. This study used a genetically informative, longitudinal (assessed at ages 12, 14, and 17) sample of Finnish adolescent twins (N = 1214, 51.6% female) to test whether etiological influences on depressive symptoms differ as a function of pubertal status. These tests were conducted separately by sex, and explored longitudinal relationships. Results indicated that pubertal development moderates environmental influences on depressive symptoms. These factors are more important on age 14 depressive symptoms among more developed girls relative to their less developed peers, but decrease in influence on age 17 depressive symptoms. The same effects are observed in boys, but are delayed, paralleling the delay in pubertal development in boys compared to girls. Thus, the importance of environmental influences on depressive symptoms during adolescence changes as a function of pubertal development, and the timing of this effect differs across the sexes.
Journal of Youth and Adolescence 12/2010; 40(10):1383-93. DOI:10.1007/s10964-010-9617-3 · 2.72 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.