The 12-month prevalence and risk factors for major depressive episode in Finland: representative sample of 5993 adults.
ABSTRACT This study reports the 12-month prevalence of major depressive episode and its risk factors in a representative nationwide sample.
A random sample of non-institutionalized Finnish individuals aged 15-75 years (N = 5993) was interviewed in 1996. Major depressive episode during the last 12 months was assessed using the Short Form of the University of Michigan version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (the UM-CIDI Short Form).
The population prevalence of major depressive episode was 9.3% [95% CI 8.5,10.0], and the age-adjusted prevalences for females and males were 10.9% [95% CI 9.7,12.0] and 7.2 [95% CI 6.2,8.2], respectively. In logistic regression analyses the factors associated with major depressive episode after adjustment for age were urban residency, smoking, alcohol intoxication and chronic medical conditions. In addition, being single and obese were found to be risk factors for males.
The female to male risk ratio for major depressive episode was smaller than in many previous studies. The sex-specific risk factor associations warrant further investigation into sex differences in depression.
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ABSTRACT: As patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are at high risk for comorbid depression, it is hypothesized that these two diseases are sharing common pathogenic pathways. Using regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity approaches, we characterized human regional brain activity at resting state to examine specific brain networks in patients with PD and those with PD and depression (PDD). This study comprised 41 PD human patients and 25 normal human subjects. The patients completed the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and were further divided into two groups: patients with depressive symptoms and non-depressed PD patients (nD-PD). Compared with the non-depressed patients, those with depressive symptoms exhibited significantly increased regional activity in the left middle frontal gyrus and right inferior frontal gyrus, and decreased ReHo in the left amygdala and bilateral lingual gyrus. Brain network connectivity analysis revealed decreased functional connectivity within the prefrontal-limbic system and increased functional connectivity in the prefrontal cortex and lingual gyrus in PDD compared with the nD-PD group. In summary, the findings showed regional brain activity alterations and disruption of the mood regulation network in PDD patients. The pathogenesis of PDD may be attributed to abnormal neural activity in multiple brain regions.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e84705. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression has been evaluated in populations of low- and middle-income (LMI) countries but the risk of depression has not been specified among persons with dementia. This cross-sectional analysis aimed to assess the prevalence and risk of depression among older people with dementia living in LMI countries. METHODS: The study analysed data from a population-based survey conducted by 10/66 Dementia Research Group in 2004. Altogether, 17 031 participants from eight different countries aged 65 years and above were assessed. Logistic regression was used to calculate prevalence and odds ratio (OR) of depression on persons with dementia. Adjustments by age and education were included in the analysis. ORs of depression on different types of dementia were determined. RESULTS: Depression was identified in 5.8% (4.4% of men, 6.6% of women) of all the 17 031 participants and in 12.4% (18.9% of men, 10.1% of women) of the 1612 persons with dementia. Persons with dementia had an increased risk of depression compared with persons without dementia, the age- and education-adjusted OR was 2.38 [95% confidence interval (CI0 1.99-2.84]); 3.86 (95% CI 2.83-5.26) for men and 1.88 (95% CI 1.51-2.35) for women. Compared with Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body [OR 2.75 (95% CI 1.40-3.72)] and vascular dementia [OR 2.35, (95% CI 1.49-3.72)] were associated with a higher risk of depression. CONCLUSIONS: Persons with dementia were twice as likely to have depression as persons without dementia. Among persons with dementia, the prevalence of depression was higher for men than women, and the risk of depression varied by the type of dementia.The European Journal of Public Health 02/2013; · 2.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Evidence on social differentials in depression outcomes remains inconsistent. We assess social predictors of psychiatric admission for depression in a community setting. METHODS: A register-based 14 % sample of community-dwelling Finns aged 40-64 at the end of 1997 was assessed for depression and psychiatric comorbidity, using register data on psychiatric hospital care and medication purchases in 1996-1997. Those with inpatient treatment for unipolar depression (n = 846), those with antidepressant treatment (n = 8,754), and those with neither (n = 222,029) were followed for psychiatric admission with a diagnosis of unipolar depression in 1998-2003. Differentials in admission rates by socioeconomic position, employment status, and living arrangements were studied using Cox proportional hazards modelling. RESULTS: Among those with prior inpatient or antidepressant treatment, the material aspects of socioeconomic position increased admission risk for depression by 20-40 %, even after controlling for baseline depression severity and psychiatric comorbidities, whereas education and occupational social class were unrelated to admission risk. Among inpatients, also having no partner, and among antidepressant users, being previously married and living without co-resident children increased admission risk. However, among inpatients few excess risks reached statistical significance. Among those with no inpatient or antidepressant treatment, all measures of low social position and not living with a partner predicted admission, and the factors had more predictive power in admission than among those with prior treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies should disentangle the mechanisms behind the higher admission risk among those with fewer economic resources and no co-resident partner.Social Psychiatry 05/2013; · 2.05 Impact Factor