Pediatric orbital floor fracture : direct extraocular muscle involvement.

University of Minnesota, Department of Ophthalmology, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0501, USA.
Ophthalmology (Impact Factor: 6.17). 11/2000; 107(10):1875-9. DOI: 10.1016/S0161-6420(00)00334-1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To study the clinical presentation, operative findings, and postoperative results of a surgical series of isolated orbital floor fractures in children.
Noncomparative, retrospective, consecutive case series.
Thirty-four patients (34 orbits) less than 18 years of age with isolated orbital floor fractures. Indications for surgery were severe limitation of extraocular ductions, 22 of 34; enophthalmos, 8 of 34: or both, 4 of 34.
Surgical repair.
Cause of fracture, symptoms, clinical signs, radiographic data, operative findings, postoperative results, and complications.
Children older than 12 years of age were more likely to sustain an orbital floor fracture as a result of interpersonal violence than were children less than 12 years of age (P: = 0.020). Sixty-two percent of patients (21 of 34) exhibited pain with eye movements and/or nausea and vomiting. Most had a trapdoor type fracture (21 of 34). The inferior rectus muscle was entrapped in the orbital floor fracture in 69% (18 of 26) of patients with a severe limitation of ocular ductions. Preoperative nausea and vomiting were immediately relieved after surgery. The median time for improvement of preoperative duction deficits and diplopia was 4 days for patients receiving surgery within 7 days and 10.5 days for those undergoing surgery after 14 days (P: = 0.030). Resolution of duction deficits or diplopia was not dependent on time of surgery if performed within 1 month of injury. Loss of vision, worsening of motility, or implant complications did not occur.
Pediatric patients with isolated orbital floor fractures who had pain, nausea, vomiting, and severe limitation of extraocular motility often have direct entrapment of the inferior rectus muscle into the fracture site. Surgical repair rapidly relieved preoperative pain, nausea, and vomiting. For patients with severe limitation of ductions, early surgical repair within 7 days of injury resulted in more rapid improvement of ductions and diplopia than surgery performed later.

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    ABSTRACT: Trapdoor-type orbital fractures usually associated with marked motility restriction are common in the pediatric age group. We reviewed the characterization and surgical outcomes of orbital blow-out fracture in children. This is a retrospective review study. From Jan. 1997 to Dec. 2006, 75 patients under 18 years of age with orbital blow-out fractures were seen in the department of ophthalmology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. The medical records and computed tomography scans of these patients were reviewed. Forty-one patients were identified whose records were adequate to compare data. The mean age of the patients was 12.7 years and the mean duration of follow-up was 6.5 months. The most common causes of injury were assault (43.9%) and motor vehicle accidents (29.3%). Ninety-five percent of the patients had diplopia and ninety-three percent had extraocular muscle limitation. The incidence of trapdoor fracture in pediatric orbital fracture was 68.3%. Orbital blow-out fractures in these children most frequently involved the isolated orbital floor. The average time to surgical intervention was 23 days after injury; 53.8% patients received immediate (0-2 days) or early (3- 14 days) repair. Improvement from preoperative supraduction limitation was statistically significant in the immediate (0-2 days), early (3-14 days) and delayed (15-30 days) surgical groups. Orbital blow-out fractures in our pediatric patients were usually the result of assault or motor vehicle accident. Surgical repair within one month of injury led to better improvement and more complete resolution of ocular motility limitation and diplopia than late repairs.
    Chang Gung medical journal 33(3):313-20.
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