Micromethod for the investigation of the interactions between DNA and redox active molecules
ABSTRACT A novel microscale and surface-based method for the study of the interactions of DNA with other redox-active molecules using DNA-modified electrodes is described. The method is simple, convenient, reliable, reagent-saving, and applicable for DNA studies, especially those involving microsamples. Information such as binding site size (s, in base pairs), binding constant (K), ratio (K0x/KRed) of the binding constants for the oxidized and reduced forms of a bound species, binding free energy (delta Gb), and interaction mode, including changes in the mode of interaction, and "limiting" ratio K0x0/KRed0 at zero ionic strength can be obtained using only 3-15 micrograms of DNA samples. The method was developed using [Co(Phen)3]3+/2+ (Phen = 1,10-phenanthroline)/double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)-modified gold electrodes and [Co(bpy)3]3+/2+ (2,2'-bipyridyl)/dsDNA-modified gold electrodes as model systems. For the [Co(Phen)3]3+/2+/dsDNA-modified gold electrode system, a K2+ of (2.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(5) M-1 and an s of 5 bp were obtained in 5 mM pH 7.1 Tris-HCl buffer solution containing 50 mM NaCl. For [Co(bpy)3]3+/2+/dsDNA-modified gold electrodes, K3+ and s values of (1.3 +/- 0.3) x 10(5) M-1 and 3 bp, respectively, were obtained. While the s values are consistent with those reported in the literature obtained by solution methods, the K values are almost an order of magnitude larger. A transition in the nature of the interaction between dsDNA and [Co(Phen)3]3+/2+, from electrostatic to intercalative with increasing ionic strength, was found in our studies. Negative values of delta E0' for [Co(bpy)3]3+/2+ bound to dsDNA suggest that its interaction with dsDNA is predominantly electrostatic over the ionic strength range of 5-105 mM. The "limiting" ratio K3+0/K2+0 of 22 obtained for [Co(Phen)3]3+/2+ bound to dsDNA at zero ionic strength suggests that electrostatic interactions are predominant over intercalative ones under these limiting conditions. The ratio for [Co(bpy)3]3+/2+ of 16 also indicates that the 3+ form binds to dsDNA more strongly than the 2+ form at zero ionic strength. For [Co(Phen)3]3+/2+/single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-modified gold electrodes, the nonuniformity of the surface structure of ssDNA-modified gold electrodes greatly complicates the analysis. A system consisting of a dsDNA-modified gold electrode and [Co(tppz)2]3+/2+ (tppz = tetra-2-pyridyl-1,4-pyrazine) was studied by this method, with a K2+ value of (5 +/- 1) x 10(5) M-1 and an 8 value of 7 bp being obtained.
SourceAvailable from: Md. Mahbubur Rahman[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Conducting polymers (CPs) are a group of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable attention because of their unique electronic, chemical, and biochemical properties. This is reflected in their use in a wide range of potential applications, including light-emitting diodes, anti-static coating, electrochromic materials, solar cells, chemical sensors, biosensors, and drug-release systems. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on CPs can be used in numerous areas related to human health. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the development and use of CP-based electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors. We discuss the distinct properties of CPs with respect to their use in the immobilization of probe DNA on electrode surfaces, and we describe the immobilization techniques used for developing DNA hybridization sensors together with the various transduction methods employed. In the concluding part of this review, we present some of the challenges faced in the use of CP-based DNA hybridization sensors, as well as a future perspective.Sensors 02/2015; 15(2). DOI:10.3390/s150203801 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this study, an electrochemical sensor was fabricated based on gold nanoparticles/ ethylenediamine/ multi-wall carbon-nanotubes modified gold electrode (AuNPs/en/MWCNTs/AuE) for determination of valrubicin in biological samples. Valrubicin was effectively accumulated on the surface of AuNPs/en/MWCNTs/AuE and produced a pair of redox peaks at around 0.662 and 0.578V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in citrate buffer (pH4.0). The electrochemical parameters including pH, buffer, ionic strength, scan rate and size of AuNPs have been optimized. There was a good linear correlation between cathodic peak current and concentration of valrubicin in the range of 0.5 to 80.0μmolL(-1) with the detection limit of 0.018μmolL(-1) in citrate buffer (pH4.0) and 0.1molL(-1) KCl. Finally, the constructed sensor was successfully applied for determination of valrubicin in human urine and blood serum. In further studies, the different sequences of single stranded DNA probes have been immobilized on the surface of AuNPs decorated on MWCNTs to study the interaction of oligonucleotides with valrubicin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Materials Science and Engineering C 04/2015; 49:769-75. DOI:10.1016/j.msec.2015.01.072 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Two novel coordination compounds of half-sandwiched ruthenium(II) containing 2-(5-fluorouracil)-yl-N-(pyridyl)-acetamide were synthesized, and their intercalation binding modes with calf thymus DNA were revealed by hyperchromism of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy; the binding constants were determined according to a Langmuir adsorption equation that was deduced on the base of careful cyclic voltammetry measurements. The two compounds exhibited DNA intercalation binding activities with the binding constants of 1.13×106 M-1 and 5.35 ×105 M-1, respectively.PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0120211. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120211 · 3.53 Impact Factor