Exercise treatment for major depression: maintenance of therapeutic benefit at 10 months

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.
Psychosomatic Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.09). 01/2000; 62(5):633-8. DOI: 10.1097/00006842-200009000-00006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to assess the status of 156 adult volunteers with major depressive disorder (MDD) 6 months after completion of a study in which they were randomly assigned to a 4-month course of aerobic exercise, sertraline therapy, or a combination of exercise and sertraline.
The presence and severity of depression were assessed by clinical interview using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and by self-report using the Beck Depression Inventory. Assessments were performed at baseline, after 4 months of treatment, and 6 months after treatment was concluded (ie, after 10 months).
After 4 months patients in all three groups exhibited significant improvement; the proportion of remitted participants (ie, those who no longer met diagnostic criteria for MDD and had an HRSD score <8) was comparable across the three treatment conditions. After 10 months, however, remitted subjects in the exercise group had significantly lower relapse rates (p = .01) than subjects in the medication group. Exercising on one's own during the follow-up period was associated with a reduced probability of depression diagnosis at the end of that period (odds ratio = 0.49, p = .0009).
Among individuals with MDD, exercise therapy is feasible and is associated with significant therapeutic benefit, especially if exercise is continued over time.

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    • "However, there is evidence that this positive relationship is more robust in patients with a diagnosis of major depression (Conn, 2010). A program of supervised exercise in clinically depressed participants may have the same beneficial effects as psychotropic medication, with a better prognosis at a 6 months follow-up assessment (Blumenthal et al., 1999; Babyak et al., 2000). There is also evidence that mood may improve rapidly after only a single session of exercise, as compared to psychotropic medication, for which 40% of patients fail to respond, even after fourth-line therapy (Wade et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) usually have mood and anxiety symptoms secondary to their brain injury. Exercise may be a cost-effective intervention for the regulation of the affective responses of this population. However, there are no studies evaluating the effects of exercise or the optimal intensity of exercise for this clinical group. Twelve male patients with moderate or severe TBI [mean age of 31.83 and SD of 9.53] and 12 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers [mean age of 30.58 and SD of 9.53] participated in two sessions of exercise of high and moderate-intensity. Anxiety and mood was evaluated, and subjective assessment of experience pre- and post-exercise was assessed. A mixed between and within-subjects general linear model (GLM) analysis was conducted to compare groups [TBI, control] over condition [baseline, session 1, session 2] allowing for group by condition interaction to be determined. Planned comparisons were also conducted to test study hypotheses. Although no group by condition interaction was observed, planned comparisons indicated that baseline differences between patients and controls in anxiety (Cohens' d = 1.80), tension (d = 1.31), depression (d = 1.18), anger (d = 1.08), confusion (d = 1.70), psychological distress (d = 1.28), and physical symptoms (d = 1.42) disappear after one session of exercise, independently of the intensity of exercise. A single-section of exercise, regardless of exercise intensity, had a positive effect on the affective responses of patients with TBI both by increasing positive valence feelings and decreasing negative ones. Exercise can be an easily accessible intervention that may alleviate depressive symptoms related to brain injury.
    Frontiers in Psychology 01/2015; 6:839. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00839 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "Rehn, Winett, Wisloff y Rognmo (2013) también apoyan este resultado al hallar que el aumento de la AFV es una de las principales formas de reducir la prevalencia de las enfermedades crónicas y mejorar la salud. Babyak et al. (2000) hallaron efectos positivos a mediano plazo (diez meses) del ejercicio aeróbico sobre la depresión, comparables con el tratamiento farmacológico. Por esta razón, diversos autores coinciden en que la AF puede ser una alternativa o un complemento eficaz como tratamiento para la depresión (Strine et al., 2008), y a su vez una forma preventiva y de tratamiento para la obesidad (Torres, García, Villaverde y Garatachea, 2010). "
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    • "(Pfizer, 2005a) Ironically, the product Bracco is being paid to promote, Zoloft, was found to be no more effective than exercise in a comparative clinical trial (Blumenthal et al., 1999). In fact, at 10-month follow-up, the subjects who had used exercise as their only intervention had superior outcomes to those who were using a combined treatment of Zoloft and exercise (Babyak et al., 2000). In the case of this trial, the best long-term outcome was reached by those who were not prescribed antidepressants at all. "
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    ABSTRACT: In the United States, antidepressant medications are heavily promoted through direct-to-consumer advertising, which is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Advertisements for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors frequently contain information inconsistent with the scientific evidence on the treatment of depression with antidepressants. The information presented serves to promote the use of antidepressants by biasing the public against nonpharmacological treatment of depression. While the FDA enforces regulations requiring fair and balanced presentation when comparing one medication to another, there appears to be no action taken against pharmaceutical companies that distort scientific evidence in order to disparage nonmedical approaches to depression.
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