Evaluation of some Moroccan medicinal plant extracts for larvicidal activity
ABSTRACT The larvicidal properties of 16 extracts of four Moroccan medicinal plants: Calotropis procera (Wild.), Cotula cinerea (L.), Solanum sodomaeum (L.) and Solanum elaeagnifolium (CAV.) were tested against Anopheles labranchiae mosquito larvae. Among the extracts tested, nine exhibited high larvicidal activity with LC(50) (24 h) ranging from 28 to 325 ppm.
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ABSTRACT: The use of insecticide to control food pest is causing serious health problems in society. Withania a medicinal plant was evaluated for its larvicidal property against mature larvae of Tribolium castenum species. Tribolium is most common food pest infesting most of the tropical food stores and thus causing a great commercial loss. The extracts of different parts of Withania were prepared and the late instar larvae of Tribolium castenum (Herbst) were treated with them. Morphological abnormalities and significant mortality was observed in treated larval forms at higher dose levels of root extracts. INTRODUCTION Stored food pests are economically important and are responsible for commercial loss every year. Many insect species are active under suitable conditions. Safe storage of grains and food products against insect damage is of serious concern (Haq et al., 2005). Food products that are left undisturbed on the shelves for long periods are particularly susceptible to infestation. However, foods of any age can become infested (Chittenden, 1987). It has been estimated that about 9% of the world's grain production is lost to post harvest insect and mite's infestation (Padin et al., 2002; Tooba et al., 2005; Rahman et al., 2009). Iteroparous beetles of genus Tribolium have been associated with stored food for more than 4000 years and are therefore considered pest of primary economic importance for food industry (Sokoloff et al, 1984; Levinson and Levinson, 1985). Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, and Tribolium confusum (DuVal), the confused flour beetle, are major pests of stored products, and when insecticides were tested against these species, the order of susceptibility was found dependent upon the specific insecticide and its formulation (Arthur 1998a, b, 2000). The widespread use of synthetic chemicals to control insect pest has caused numerous environmental problems. Pesticides formulated with herbal extracts are in practice as a safer alternative and has become part of leading research all over the world (Silva et al., 2002; Clemente et al., 2003). Plants constitute a rich source of bioactive compound which might act deadly on the insect physiological system and kill them (Daoubi et al., 2005; Kim et al., 2005). Recent studies have demonstrated the insecticidal properties of chemical derived from plants that are active against specific target species, are biodegradable and potentially suitable for use in integrated management program (Markouk et al., 2000; Tare et al., 2004). Many plant extracts are considered important products for pest management in Ancient China, Egypt, Greece and India (Isman, 2006; Long et al., 2006). To the present, more than 2000 plant species are known to have insecticidal properties, where the Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Labiatae, Fabaceae, Meliaceae and Solanaceae families stand out (García et al., 2004). 60% to 70% of the species of Solanaceae family produce alkaloids which play an important role against pathogens and herbivores. They have toxic and feed deterrent effect on insects (Eich 2008). The extracts of the Solanaceae family have been tested on various groups of insects of agricultural importance (Braga et al., 2004; Bouchelta et al., 2005; Bastos et al., 2009).
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ABSTRACT: Diseases transmitted by blood-feeding mosquitoes, such as dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, Japanese encephalitis, malaria, and filariasis, are increasing in prevalence, particularly in tropical and subtropical zones. To control mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases, which have worldwide health and economic impacts, synthetic insecticide-based interventions are still necessary, particularly in situations of epidemic outbreak and sudden increases of adult mosquitoes. Green nanoparticle synthesis has been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract and eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, in the present study, the adulticidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Heliotropium indicum plant leaf extract against adults of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. Adult mosquitoes were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of H. indicum and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using the leaf extract of H. indicum, and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 6 h. The results recorded from UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the adult of A. stephensi (lethal dose (LD)50 = 26.712 μg/mL; LD90 = 49.061 μg/mL), A. aegypti (LD50 = 29.626 μg/mL; LD90 = 54.269 μg/mL), and C. quinquefasciatus (LD50 = 32.077 μg/mL; LD90 = 58.426 μg/mL), respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the leaf aqueous extracts of H.indicum and green synthesis of AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the adulticidal activity of the plant extracts and AgNPs.Parasitology Research 10/2014; 113(12). DOI:10.1007/s00436-014-4147-7 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mosquitoes are the crucial vectors for a number of mosquito-borne infectious diseases i.e. dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, malaria, Rift Valley fever, elephantiasis, Japanese Encephalitis, and Murray Valley encephalitis etc. Besides, they also transmit numerous arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) for example West Nile virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus, Everglades virus, Highlands J virus, and La Crosse Encephalitis virus. The emergence of widespread insecticide resistance and the potential environmental issues associated with some synthetic insecticides (such as DDT) has indicated that additional approaches to control the proliferation of mosquito population would be an urgent priority research. The present review highlights some natural product mosquitocides that are target-specific, biodegradable, environmentally safe, and botanicals in origin.Phytochemistry Reviews 09/2013; 13(3):587-627. DOI:10.1007/s11101-013-9316-2 · 2.89 Impact Factor