Evaluation of some Moroccan medicinal plant extracts for larvicidal activity.
ABSTRACT The larvicidal properties of 16 extracts of four Moroccan medicinal plants: Calotropis procera (Wild.), Cotula cinerea (L.), Solanum sodomaeum (L.) and Solanum elaeagnifolium (CAV.) were tested against Anopheles labranchiae mosquito larvae. Among the extracts tested, nine exhibited high larvicidal activity with LC(50) (24 h) ranging from 28 to 325 ppm.
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ABSTRACT: A literature review revealed heavy reliance on a few key publications for identification of medicinal plant species from local or vernacular names and a lack of citation of voucher specimens in many publications. There is a need for more reliable and standardized data on the identity of species used for medicine, especially because local names vary from region to region. This is especially true in the case of medicinal roots, for which identification of species is difficult. This paper contributes to existing data on the species sold as medicinal roots (and other underground plant parts such as bulbs, corms, rhizomes and tubers) in Morocco. Data were collected in collaboration with herbalists in Marrakech and collectors in rural regions near Marrakech where species are collected from the wild. The ethno-medicinal uses of these species were also recorded. We identified the vernacular names for 67 medicinal roots (by free listing) used to treat a variety of human diseases. We were able to collect and identify one or more species for 39 of the recorded vernacular names. The ones we were not able to identify were either imported or no longer available in the markets. We collected more than one species for some of the vernacular names for a total of 43 species. We identified six new vernacular names and four species which had not been previously described in the literature. Our botanical identification matched at least one of the names listed in the literature 63% of the time and did not match any species listed in the literature 37% of the time. Of the three most commonly cited pieces of literature we compared to, we found the greatest overlap with the broader, more comprehensive work of Bellakhdar 1997 (as opposed to Benchaabane and Abbad 1997 which worked in a similarly focused geographical area). However there was only 63% agreement between Bellakhdar 1997 and our botanical identifications, and 29% of the time our identification didn't match even the genus of any of the species listed in any of the 3 most commonly cited pieces of literature. More rigorous methodology and reporting are needed for medicinal plant research in Morocco. This will ensure that studies are comparable, help to protect traditional medicine users from negative health effects, and, support efforts to conserve overharvested wild medicinal plants.Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 08/2013; 9(1):59. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Shows that for any sequence ρ(n)=o(n) and any sequence of prefix codes, there is a B-process of entropy arbitrarily close to the maximum possible entropy for which the expected redundancy is at least as large as ρ(n) for infinitely many n. This extends earlier work of the first author, whose examples had 0 entropy, [Shields, 1993]. The class of B-processes, that is, stationary codings of i.i.d. processes, includes the aperiodic Markov chains and functions thereof, aperiodic renewal and regenerative processes, and independent processes, as well as many other processes of interest. In particular, the results show that the search for a universal redundancy-rate for the class of all B-processes is doomed to failure, and redundancy rates for any given subclass must be obtained by direct analysis of that subclass01/1994;
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ABSTRACT: Mosquitoes not only create a nuisance as biting insects but are etiologic agents for some of the devastating diseases of human history such as malaria, filariasis, chikunguniya, dengue etc. Anopheles stephensi Liston is the primary vector of malaria in India and other West Asian countries, Malaria remains one of the most prevalent diseases in the tropical world. With 200 million to 450 million infections annually worldwide, it causes up to 2.7 million deaths. The objective of the present investigation larvicidal and ovicidal activities of acetone, benzene, ethyl acetate and methanol leaf extract of Cissus quadrangularis and Combretum ovalifolium against An. stephensi. Twenty five early fourth instar larvae of An. stephensi was exposed to various concentrations (30-200ppm) and was assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO (2005) the 24h LC50 values of the Cissus quadrangularis and Combretum ovalifolium leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi to various concentrations ranging from 50-350ppm under laboratory conditions. The hatch rates were assessed 24 h post treatment. The LC 50 value of acetone, benzene, ethyl acetate and methanol leaf extracts of Cissus quadrangularis were 56.42, 46.37, 47.55 and 37.48ppm, respectively (table 1). Combretum ovalifolium shows the LC50 values of 95.47, 85.37, 86.46 and 74.53ppm, respectively (table 2). Among two plant solvents tested, Cissus quadrangularis extracts were found to be most significant ovicidal activity 100% egg mortality (zero hatchability) observed at 50 ppm and 350 ppm for Combretum ovalifolium (table 3). From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of Cissus quadrangularis and Combretum ovalifolium were an excellent potential for controlling human malarial vector mosquito An. stephensi.08/2013;