Evaluation of some Moroccan medicinal plant extracts for larvicidal activity

Laboratory of Medicinal Plants and Phytochemistry, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences - Semlalia, P.O. Box 2390 40000, Marrakech, Morocco.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.94). 12/2000; 73(1-2):293-7. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00257-9
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ABSTRACT The larvicidal properties of 16 extracts of four Moroccan medicinal plants: Calotropis procera (Wild.), Cotula cinerea (L.), Solanum sodomaeum (L.) and Solanum elaeagnifolium (CAV.) were tested against Anopheles labranchiae mosquito larvae. Among the extracts tested, nine exhibited high larvicidal activity with LC(50) (24 h) ranging from 28 to 325 ppm.

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    ABSTRACT: y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas 12 (5): 476 -492 ISSN 0717 7917 Artículo Original | Original Article 476 Citotoxicidad in vitro de extractos laticiferos de Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton y Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L.) Poit. [In vitro cytotoxicity of laticifers extracts from Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T and Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L.) Poit.] Abstract In order to assess the anticancer action of extracts obtained by latex from Calotropis procera and Pedilanthus tithymaloides, samples were collected from adult plants. Soluble proteins were extracted with 16 µL of 50 mM sodium acetate pH 5/μg integral latex and centrifugation at 16,000 x g for 15 min, the supernatant was named "latex crude extract" (LCE). The "latex methanolic extract" (LME) was obtained on dried latex. Both extracts were tested in vitro by cytotoxic and cytostatic activity in Jurkat cell cultures. Cellular viability, proliferation, necrosis and apoptosis were evaluated. LCE and LME of C. procera were found with cytotoxic and cytostatic activity after 24 incubation hours (p < 0,05) with doses from 1µg/mL. The LCE and LME of P. tithymaloides presented cytotoxic effect (p < 0,05) from 50 µg/mL and from 1µg/mL, respectively. Resumen Con el objetivo de evaluar el potencial anticanceroso de extractos de látex de Calotropis procera y Pedilanthus tithymaloides se colectaron muestras de plantas adultas. Las proteínas solubles fueron extraídas con 16 µL de acetato de sodio 50 mM pH 5/µg de látex integral y centrifugación a 16.000 x g durante 15 min, denominándose al sobrenadante "extracto crudo de látex" (ECL). El "extracto metanólico de látex" (EML) se obtuvo sobre látex deshidratado. Ambos extractos fueron probados en su actividad citotóxica y citostática in vitro sobre cultivos de células Jurkat. Se realizaron estudios de viabilidad, proliferación, necrosis y apoptosis celular. El ECL y el EML de C. procera presentaron actividad citotóxica y citostática después de 24 y 48 horas de incubación (p < 0,05) con dosis desde 1 µg/mL. Los ECL y EML de P. tithymaloides presentaron efectos citotóxicos (p < 0,05) a partir de 50 µg/mL y desde 1 µg/mL respectivamente. Palabras Clave: Látex, cultivos celulares in vitro, células Jurkat, citotóxico, citostático.
    Boletin Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromaticas 09/2013; 12(5):476-492. DOI:10.13140/2.1.3567.6802 · 0.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study focuses on the larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of a crude extract of Artemisia annua against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Dried cells of Artemisia annua from cell suspension cultures were extracted using hexane. The extract showed moderate larvicidal effects against mosquitoes. At 24-h post treatment, the LC50 values for Anopheles sinensis, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus were recorded as 244.55, 276.14, and 374.99 ppm, respectively. The percentage mortality of larvae was directly proportional to the tested concentration. Anopheles sinensis was found to be the most susceptible species, whereas Culex quinquefasciatus was the most tolerant to the Artemisia annua extract. The results indicated that the Artemisia annua extract showed concentration-dependent oviposition deterrent activity and had a strong deterrent effect. At 500 ppm, the percentage effective repellency was more than 85 % compared with the control group for all the species, with oviposition activity index values of -0.94, -0.95, and -0.78 for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. In the ovicidal assay, the percentage hatchability of eggs after treatment with 500 ppm of Artemisia annua extract was significantly lower than the control, with values of 48.84 ± 4.08, 38.42 ± 3.67, and 79.35 ± 2.09 % for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. Artemisia annua was found to be more effective against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles sinensis compared with Culex quinquefasciatus. This study indicated that crude extract of A. annua could be a potential alternative for use in vector management programs.
    Parasitology Research 07/2013; 112(9). DOI:10.1007/s00436-013-3506-0 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as eggs, larvae, and adult. The larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent activities of crude benzene and ethyl acetate extracts of leaf of Ervatamia coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in benzene extract of E. coronaria against the larvae of Anopheles Stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus with the LC(50) and LC(90) values were 79.08, 89.59, and 96.15 ppm and 150.47, 166.04, and 174.10 ppm, respectively. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 48 h posttreatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. The leaf extract of E. coronaria was found to be most effective than Caesalpinia pulcherrima against eggs/egg rafts of three vector mosquitoes. For E. coronaria, the benzene extract exerted 300, 250, and 200 ppm against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of benzene and ethyl acetate extract of E. coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of fore arm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent activities of the reported E. coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima plants.
    Parasitology Research 02/2011; 109(2):353-67. DOI:10.1007/s00436-011-2263-1 · 2.33 Impact Factor