Activation of genotoxins to DNA-damaging species in exfoliated breast milk cells.
ABSTRACT Exfoliated cells, isolated from breast milk samples donated by UK-resident women (n=15), were incubated, either immediately or after culture for 7 days, with one of a series of genotoxins, either in the presence or absence of the DNA-repair inhibitors, hydroxyurea (HU), and cytosine arabinoside (ara-C). The numbers of DNA single-strand breaks induced were then assessed as comet tail length (CTL) (microm) using the alkaline single cell-gel electrophoresis ('Comet') assay; cell viability was measured by trypan blue exclusion. The heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (0.4 mM), 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1) (1.67 mM), 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2) (1.77 mM)), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (0.36 mM)), a nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (1-nitropyrene (1-NP) (1.84 mM)) and aromatic amines (o-toluidine (0.85 mM), p-chloroaniline (0. 71 mM)) each induced statistically significant (P<0.0001, Mann-Whitney test) increases in median CTLs in breast milk cells from all the donors examined when incubated (30 min, 37 degrees C) in the presence of HU/ara-C. In some cases, these compounds were also active in the absence of the repair inhibitors. There were marked variations in comet formation between donors and between genotoxins. Cell culture appeared to increase the epithelial cell proportion and cultured cells retained their ability to activate genotoxins. The results suggest that breast milk is a valuable source of human mammary cells for the study of the metabolic activation of possible carcinogens.
- Chemical Research in Toxicology 11/2001; 14(11):1523-1528. · 4.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Breast cancer may be initiated by environmental/dietary agents and human milk may act as an ex vivo indicator of in vivo exposure of mammary epithelial cells to genotoxins. Extracts of human milk from UK-resident women (n=7) were tested for their abilities to morphologically transform C3H/M2 mouse fibroblasts. Genotoxicities were assessed in the Salmonella typhimurium reverse-mutation assay in the presence of S9 using strains TA1538 and YG1019, and in metabolically-competent human MCL-5 cells with the micronucleus and with the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assays. Two of the seven extracts were inactive in the transformation assay both in the presence or absence of S9, two appeared to be equally transforming either in the presence or absence of S9, and two other extracts induced increased transformation frequencies in the presence of S9. A seventh extract, tested only in the absence of S9, was inactive. Extracts were either active or inactive in at least three of the four tests applied. Four extracts were active or inactive in all four tests. The results suggest that human milk could be used as a resource for investigations of the as-yet-unidentified transforming agents previously detected in mammary lipid.Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 12/2001; · 4.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies indicate the involvement of environmental factors in the etiology of breast cancer, but have not provided clear indications of the nature of the agents responsible. Several environmental carcinogens are known to induce mammary tumors in rodents, and the abundance of adipose tissue in the human breast suggests that the epithelial cells, from which breast tumors commonly arise, could be exposed to lipid-soluble carcinogens sequestered by the adipose tissue. In this report we review our studies in which we have examined human mammary lipid, obtained from elective reduction mammoplasties from healthy donors, and human milk from healthy mothers, for the presence of components with genotoxic activity in several in vitro assays. A significant proportion of lipid extracts induced mutations in bacteria and micronuclei in mammalian cells. They also caused DNA damage, detected as single-strand breaks in the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay, in both the MCL-5 cell line and in primary cultures of human mammary epithelial cells. Genotoxic activity was also found in a significant proportion of extracts of human breast milk. Viable cells recovered from milk samples showed evidence of DNA damage and were susceptible to comet formation by genotoxic agents in vitro. Genotoxic activity was found to be less prevalent in milk samples from countries of lower breast cancer incidence (the Far East) compared with that in samples from the UK. The agents responsible for the activity in milk appear to be moderately polar lipophilic compounds and of low molecular weight. Identification of these agents and their sources may hold clues to the origins of breast cancer. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 39:143–149, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 03/2002; 39(2‐3):143 - 149. · 2.55 Impact Factor