Minimum estimated incidence in Japan of anaphylaxis to live virus vaccines including gelatin
ABSTRACT We have previously found that most occurrences of anaphylaxis to live virus vaccines are caused by gelatin present in the vaccines as a stabilizer. After we published the evidence for the role of gelatin in anaphylaxis, vaccine manufacturers in Japan began to eliminate gelatin from live virus vaccines. In the present study, we tried to estimate its incidence before the gelatin elimination was started. Physicians and vaccine manufacturers submitted serum samples from children with anaphylaxis to measles, mumps, rubella or varicella vaccine to National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID) for 3 years from April 1994 to March 1997. Specific IgE to gelatin was assayed at NIID or two manufacturers by the CAP and ELISA methods. There were 44 children with life-threatening severe anaphylaxis (airway obstruction or anaphylactic shock) during the 3-year period, 41 of whom had anti-gelatin IgE. There were 64 children with mild anaphylaxis (without airway obstruction); 62 had anti-gelatin IgE. There were 100 children with only systemic cutaneous signs; 81 had anti-gelatin IgE. The estimates for the incidence of the severe anaphylaxis in 1994-1996 are: 6.84, 7.31, 4. 36, and 10.3 cases per million doses of gelatin-containing measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella vaccines, respectively.
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- "The questionnaire was distributed by the Japan Small Animal Veterinary Association to veterinary hospitals in Japan from April 1, 2006 through May 31, 2007. et al., 1995; Roth, 1999) occasionally observed in humans and dogs after vaccination, and which sometimes causes death (Brooks, 1991; Sakaguchi et al., 2000). According to large epidemiological studies on canine VAAEs, the incidences of anaphylaxis were 0.018/10,000 vaccinated dogs in the United Kingdom (Gaskell et al., 2002) and 0.65/10,000 vaccinated dogs in the United States (Moore et al., 2005). "
ABSTRACT: Canine non-rabies combined vaccines are widely used to protect animals from infectious agents, and also play an important role in public health. We performed a large-scale survey to investigate vaccine-associated adverse events (VAAEs), including anaphylaxis, in Japan by distributing questionnaires on VAAEs to veterinary hospitals from April 1, 2006 through May 31, 2007. Valid responses were obtained for 57,300 vaccinated dogs at 573 animal hospitals; we obtained VAAEs information for last 100 vaccinated dogs in each veterinary hospital. We found that of the 57,300, 359 dogs showed VAAEs. Of the 359 dogs, death was observed in 1, anaphylaxis in 41, dermatological signs in 244, gastrointestinal signs in 160, and other signs in 106. Onset of VAAEs was mostly observed within 12h after vaccination (n=299, 83.3%). In this study, anaphylaxis events occurred within 60 min after vaccination, and about half of these events occurred within 5 min (n=19, 46.3%). Furthermore, where anaphylaxis was reported, additional information to support the diagnosis was obtained by reinvestigation. Our resurvey of dogs with anaphylaxis yielded responses on 31 dogs; 27 of these demonstrated collapse (87.1%), 24 demonstrated cyanosis (77.4%), and both signs occurred in 22 (71.0%). Higher rates of animal VAAEs, anaphylaxis, and death were found in Japan than in other countries. Further investigations, including survey studies, will be necessary to elucidate the interaction between death and vaccination and the risk factors for VAAEs, and thus develop safer vaccines. Moreover, it may also be necessary to continually update the data of VAAEs.Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 01/2012; 145(1-2):447-52. DOI:10.1016/j.vetimm.2011.12.023 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Keywords:adverse reaction;anaphylaxis;gelatin;IgE;Japanese encephalitis vaccineAllergy 09/2001; 56(8):804-5. DOI:10.1034/j.1398-9995.2001.056008804.x · 6.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Systemic immediate reactions including anaphylaxis to gelatin in vaccines have been reported. However, the number of such reports is very small compared with the number of children exposed to gelatin. The present study was designed to investigate whether susceptibility or resistance to gelatin allergy is associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II gene. Blood samples were obtained from 49 patients with gelatin allergy and specific IgE to gelatin. DNA-based HLA class II typing was performed to determine the DRB1, DQB1 and DPB1 alleles. Genotype frequencies were compared with those found in 240 unrelated controls. The frequency of DQB1*0303 (55.1%) was significantly higher in the patients than in the control subjects (32.1%). The frequency of DPB1*0402 was also significantly higher in the patients (32.7%) than in the control subjects (15.4%). On the other hand, the frequency of subjects carrying DRB1*15 (DRB1*1501 and DRB1*1502) was significantly lower among the patients group (18.4%) than among the controls (40.8%). We found that DQB1*0303 and DPB1*0402 were positively associated with the IgE response for gelatin, while DRB1*15 was negatively associated with it.Tissue Antigens 06/2002; 59(5):412-6. DOI:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2002.590508.x · 2.14 Impact Factor