Possible induction of mania and hypomania by olanzapine or risperidone: A critical review of reported cases
ABSTRACT Risperidone and olanzapine are atypical antipsychotics that are now widely used in clinical practice.
A MEDLINE search (1966-1999) showed that, following the introduction of these agents in recent years, 26 cases of induced hypomanic and manic syndromes have been reported during standard olanzapine (N = 10) or risperidone (N = 16) treatment.
A critical analysis of these case reports reveals that the effects on mood were sometimes insufficiently documented and that in about half of them (N = 16) evidence is highly suggestive of a causative role of risperidone or olanzapine in the induction of (hypo)manic symptomatology.
Despite limitations, the available literature confirms intriguing effects of these 2 antipsychotics on mood. The risk factors as well as the mechanisms of action underlying these effects remain to be clarified.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To report the case of a 46-year old male with major depressive disorder, who represented manic symptoms, when olanzapine was added to his treatment. Method: A 46-year old female, with a diagnosis of treatment resistant depression was referred to the authors. He had past history of depression for more than 20 years. The symptoms were present nearly every day since 1981, without any distinct period of remission, nor any noticeable fluctuation. His irritability had been disruptive to his family all these years. His doctor had prescribed maprotiline 25 mg/day, and lorazepam, 2mg/day, in addition to fluoxetine for the last 5 months. He is also a father of two children with methylphenidate-resistant and sodium valproate-responsive attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Considering the antidepressant effects of olanzapine and its positive effects on irritability, the authors added olanzapine, to the patient's previous medications. Results: After one week, he showed new problems such as talkativeness and beginning to smoke for the first time in his life, elevated mood, grandiosity about his intelligence and abilities, talkativeness, and shopping sprees. The score on the mania rating scale was 14. Fluoxetine was discontinued and sodium valproate, were prescribed. It took around 2 months to completely control the manic symptoms. Conclusions: In the patients with depression who show bipolar spectrum disorder features, adding mood stabilizers may be preferred to the drugs as olanzapine which could induce mania. Paradoxical effects of psychiatric medications have been a subject of debate, one of which is the effect of atypical antipsychotics on manic episodes. Efficacy of olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, in acute mania has been established based on various clinical trials(1, 2). However, affective side effects of different antipsychotics have been reported. Typical antipsychotics can cause switching to depression in bipolar patients (3). On the other hand, there are several reports of atypical antipsychotic-induced mania. Also, in recent years, there have been at least 11 case reports of mania following the administration of olanzapine, most of which were in patients with a primary psychotic disorder (4, 5). However, many of these accounts lack precision of information on the use of other psychotropic medications shortly before olanzapine was administered, and the use of concomitant medications, which renders the conclusions on a causal relationship between olanzapine administration and start of mania doubtful (6, 7). Yet, some reports are highly suggestive of such causal association (8, 9). Rachid et al. (1), in a recent review of literature on atypical antipsychotic-induced mania, between January 1999 to December 2003, found five cases of olanzapine-induced mania: two patients with schizophrenia, one with delusional disorder, one with bipolar I disorder (BID), and one with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD). The MDD case in this review, was similar to Fahy and Fahy's observation (6). However, with reference to the latter article, we found a manic episode in the patient's history that indicated to a diagnosis of BID To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first report of acute mania after administration of olanzapine in a patient with chronic and treatment-resistant MDD. Also, as there were some clues of a bipolar spectrum disorder in our patient, it warrants a discussion of the clinical implications (10).
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ABSTRACT: Atypical antipsychotics are a class of novel agents increasingly employed for the treatment of psychotic disorders. The pharmacodynamic properties of the atypicals appear to impact a broader spectrum of psychotic symptoms than had been appreciated with older generation antipsychotics. In addition, the atypical agents appear to have a reduced risk of neurologic side effects compared with conventional antipsychotic use. Both of these features enhance the appeal of the atypical antipsychotics and may be associated with enhanced patient compliance. The atypical antipsychotics appear to be effective for schizophrenia as well as other psychotic disorders, including schizoaffective disorder and mood disorders with psychotic features. Consequently, atypical antipsychotics are now considered to be the first-line treatment for schizophrenia, with the exception of clozapine, which is considered a second-line agent because of risks associated with its use. This review will discuss the literature on atypical antipsychotic efficacy in psychotic disorders. Issues related to antipsychotic use, dosing, adverse effects, and drug interactions are also discussed.The Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 01/2001; 2(6):194-204. DOI:10.4088/PCC.v02n0601
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ABSTRACT: Olanzapine, a thienobenzodiazepine derivative, is a psychotropic agent that has shown efficacy in the treatment of patients with bipolar I disorder. Olanzapine has a multireceptorial binding profile including a greater affinity for serotonin 5-HT(2A) than for dopamine D(2) receptors. Olanzapine 5 to 20 mg/day demonstrated significantly greater antimanic efficacy than placebo in two double-blind, randomised 3- or 4-week trials of patients with bipolar I disorder of either manic or mixed episodes, with or without psychotic features. Additionally, in one of these trials, improvements in cognitive function and hostility were superior with olanzapine. In cohorts of severely depressed and rapid cycling patients, improvements in manic and depressive symptoms and in manic symptoms only, were superior with olanzapine compared with placebo. Significant improvements from baseline in symptoms of mania, depression, cognitive functioning and hostility were seen with olanzapine in a 49-week extension phase study. In double-blind trials, olanzapine 10 mg/day appeared to have similar antimanic efficacy to oral lithium 400mg twice daily in the treatment of patients with pure mania (4-week small study). In patients with acute manic or mixed episodes olanzapine 5 to 20 mg/day appeared to be more effective than oral valproate semisodium (divalproex sodium) 500 to 2500 mg/day (3-week study) and at least as effective as oral haloperidol 3 to 15 mg/day (12-week study). Preliminary results from a large 6-week placebo-controlled study suggest that olanzapine 5 to 20 mg/day in combination with mood stabilisers (lithium or valproate semisodium) provides effective augmentation of antimanic treatment of patients with bipolar I disorder, with benefits seen in the first week. Adverse events reported significantly more often with olanzapine than with placebo were somnolence, dry mouth, dizziness and bodyweight gain, and in comparison with valproate semisodium were somnolence, dry mouth, increased appetite and bodyweight gain. Olanzapine was generally well tolerated with no clinically relevant abnormalities in laboratory tests, vital signs or electrocardiogram results. CONCLUSION: Olanzapine demonstrated superior efficacy compared with placebo in the short-term treatment of patients with bipolar I disorder with manic or mixed episodes, with or without psychotic features, and was generally well tolerated. According to preliminary data the antimanic efficacy of olanzapine appears similar to that of haloperidol and better than that of valproate semisodium in patients with bipolar I disorder experiencing a manic or mixed episode; among nonpsychotic patients with manic or mixed episodes olanzapine appears to be superior to haloperidol. Available data support the choice of olanzapine as an option in the short-term management of mania in patients with bipolar I disorder with manic or mixed episodes, with or without psychotic features.CNS Drugs 02/2001; 15(11):871-904. · 5.11 Impact Factor