Comparative analysis of DNA methylation in tobacco heterochromatic sequences

Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno.
Chromosome Research (Impact Factor: 2.48). 01/2000; 8(6):527-41. DOI: 10.1023/A:1009223823327
Source: PubMed


Cytosine methylation levels and susceptibility to drug-induced hypomethylation have been studied in several Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) DNA repetitive sequences. It has been shown using HapII, MspI, BamHI and Sau3AI methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes that the degree of 5'-mCmCG-3' methylation varied significantly between different repeats. There were almost saturation levels of 5-methylcytosine at the inner (3') cytosine position and variable degrees of methylation at the outer (5') cytosine at the enzyme recognition sites. The non-transcribed high copy satellite sequences (HRS60, GRS) displayed significant heterogeneity in methylation of their basic units while middle repetitive sequences (R8.1, GRD5, 5S rDNA) were more uniformly modified at both cytosine residues. Dihydroxypropyladenine (DHPA) treatment, which is thought to reduce DNA methyltransferase activity by increasing S-adenosylhomocysteine levels, resulted in extensive demethylation of the outer cytosine in all repeats, and the partial hypomethylation of cytosines at the inner positions in less densely methylated repeats such as HRS60 and GRS. The results suggest that hypomethylation of 5'-mCmCG-3' sites with DHPA is a gradual non-random process proceeding in the direction mCmCG-->CmCG-->CCG. The 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA was remarkably hypomethylated relative to the 5S rDNA at all restriction sites studied. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization showed that DNA decondensation within and between the 18S-5.8S-25S and 5S rDNA loci was variable in different nuclei. All nuclei had condensed and decondensed sequence. The chromatin of 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA was more readily digested with micrococcal nuclease than the 5S rDNA suggesting that the overall levels of decondensation were higher for 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA. Variable decondensation patterns within and between loci were also observed for GRS and HRS60. Cytosine methylation of the tobacco repeats is discussed with respect to transcription, overall levels of condensation and overall structure.

Download full-text


Available from: Conrad Paul Lichtenstein, Oct 10, 2015
21 Reads
  • Source
    • "DNA was extracted from fresh young leaves according to Kovarik et al. [41], digested with EcoRV restriction endonuclease (5 U μg-1 DNA, twice for 6 h), fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to Hybond XL membranes (GE-Healthcare, UK) using alkaline capillary transfer. Membranes were hybridised with 32P-labelled DNA probe (DecaLabel DNA Labeling Kit, MBI Fermentas). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Tandemly arranged nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), encoding 18S, 5.8S and 26S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), exhibit concerted evolution, a pattern thought to result from the homogenisation of rDNA arrays. However rDNA homogeneity at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level has not been detailed in organisms with more than a few hundred copies of the rDNA unit. Here we study rDNA complexity in species with arrays consisting of thousands of units. Methods We examined homogeneity of genic (18S) and non-coding internally transcribed spacer (ITS1) regions of rDNA using Roche 454 and/or Illumina platforms in four angiosperm species, Nicotiana sylvestris, N. tomentosiformis, N. otophora and N. kawakamii. We compared the data with Southern blot hybridisation revealing the structure of intergenic spacer (IGS) sequences and with the number and distribution of rDNA loci. Results and Conclusions In all four species the intragenomic homogeneity of the 18S gene was high; a single ribotype makes up over 90% of the genes. However greater variation was observed in the ITS1 region, particularly in species with two or more rDNA loci, where >55% of rDNA units were a single ribotype, with the second most abundant variant accounted for >18% of units. IGS heterogeneity was high in all species. The increased number of ribotypes in ITS1 compared with 18S sequences may reflect rounds of incomplete homogenisation with strong selection for functional genic regions and relaxed selection on ITS1 variants. The relationship between the number of ITS1 ribotypes and the number of rDNA loci leads us to propose that rDNA evolution and complexity is influenced by locus number and/or amplification of orphaned rDNA units at new chromosomal locations.
    BMC Genomics 12/2012; 13(1). DOI:10.1186/1471-2164-13-722 · 3.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Using methylation-sensitive enzymes in combination with Southern blot hybridization we determined methylation status of non-genic (subtelomeric HRS60 satellite) and genic (5S rDNA) tandemly arranged repeated sequences (Fig. 1a, c, respectively). Both sequences totally encompass about 2% of tobacco genome (Kovarik et al. 2000a). The enzymes involved HpaII which is sensitive to methylation of either C within the CCGG recognition sequence and MspI isoschizomere sensitive to methylation of outer (but not inner C) within CCGG. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Developmental processes are closely connected to certain states of epigenetic information which, among others, rely on methylation of chromatin. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) are key cofactors of enzymes catalyzing DNA and histone methylation. To study the consequences of altered SAH/SAM levels on plant development we applied 9-(S)-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-adenine (DHPA), an inhibitor of SAH-hydrolase, on tobacco seeds during a short phase of germination period (6 days). The transient drug treatment induced: (1) dosage-dependent global DNA hypomethylation mitotically transmitted to adult plants; (2) pleiotropic developmental defects including decreased apical dominance, altered leaf and flower symmetry, flower whorl malformations and reduced fertility; (3) dramatic upregulation of floral organ identity genes NTDEF, NTGLO and NAG1 in leaves. We conclude that temporal SAH-hydrolase inhibition deregulated floral genes expression probably via chromatin methylation changes. The data further show that plants might be particularly sensitive to accurate setting of SAH/SAM levels during critical developmental periods.
    MGG Molecular & General Genetics 03/2011; 285(3):225-36. DOI:10.1007/s00438-011-0601-8 · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Southern blotting followed the protocol described in [51] using rDNA probes labeled with [α-32P]dCTP (Izotop, Budapest, Hungary). The ITS-1 probe was a BstNI fragment from the cloned 18S-ITS-5.8S "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tragopogon mirus and T. miscellus are allotetraploids (2n = 24) that formed repeatedly during the past 80 years in eastern Washington and adjacent Idaho (USA) following the introduction of the diploids T. dubius, T. porrifolius, and T. pratensis (2n = 12) from Europe. In most natural populations of T. mirus and T. miscellus, there are far fewer 35S rRNA genes (rDNA) of T. dubius than there are of the other diploid parent (T. porrifolius or T. pratensis). We studied the inheritance of parental rDNA loci in allotetraploids resynthesized from diploid accessions. We investigate the dynamics and directionality of these rDNA losses, as well as the contribution of gene copy number variation in the parental diploids to rDNA variation in the derived tetraploids. Using Southern blot hybridization and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), we analyzed copy numbers and distribution of these highly reiterated genes in seven lines of synthetic T. mirus (110 individuals) and four lines of synthetic T. miscellus (71 individuals). Variation among diploid parents accounted for most of the observed gene imbalances detected in F1 hybrids but cannot explain frequent deviations from repeat additivity seen in the allotetraploid lines. Polyploid lineages involving the same diploid parents differed in rDNA genotype, indicating that conditions immediately following genome doubling are crucial for rDNA changes. About 19% of the resynthesized allotetraploid individuals had equal rDNA contributions from the diploid parents, 74% were skewed towards either T. porrifolius or T. pratensis-type units, and only 7% had more rDNA copies of T. dubius-origin compared to the other two parents. Similar genotype frequencies were observed among natural populations. Despite directional reduction of units, the additivity of 35S rDNA locus number is maintained in 82% of the synthetic lines and in all natural allotetraploids. Uniparental reductions of homeologous rRNA gene copies occurred in both synthetic and natural populations of Tragopogon allopolyploids. The extent of these rDNA changes was generally higher in natural populations than in the synthetic lines. We hypothesize that locus-specific and chromosomal changes in early generations of allopolyploids may influence patterns of rDNA evolution in later generations.
    BMC Evolutionary Biology 09/2010; 10(1):291. DOI:10.1186/1471-2148-10-291 · 3.37 Impact Factor
Show more