Developmental changes in inhibitory processing: evidence from psychophysiological measures.
ABSTRACT Two major theories of the development of inhibitory functioning are discussed that assume a close relation between inhibitory ability and the maturation of the frontal lobes. It is argued that a psychophysiological approach may add considerably to the study of developmental change in inhibitory processes. A selective review is presented of studies examining heart rate and brain potential measures obtained in a variety of paradigms supposedly showing inhibitory control. The results of these studies are discussed within the framework proposed by Stuss et al. [Stuss, D.T., Shallice, T., Alexander, M.P., Picton, T.W., 1995. A multidisciplinary approach to anterior attentional processing. In: Grafman, J., Holyoak, K.J., Boller, F. (Eds.), Structure and functions of the human prefrontal cortex. Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 769, 191-211], relating component processes of supervisory-system control to distinct brain regions and psychophysiological measures of attention. It is concluded that the supervisory-system framework provides a heuristic way for examining developmental changes in inhibitory processing.
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ABSTRACT: Neurocognitive impairment is a feature of childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS). Several studies have demonstrated reduced attention control in CCFS patients in switching and divided attention tasks. In students, the extent of deterioration in task performance depends on the level of fatigue. Poor performance in switching and divided attention is common in both fatigued students and CCFS patients. Additionally, attentional functions show dramatic development from childhood to adolescence, suggesting that abnormal development of switching and divided attention may be induced by chronic fatigue. The brain structures associated with attentional control are situated in the frontal and parietal cortices, which are the last to mature, suggesting that severe fatigue in CCFS patients and students may inhibit normal structural and functional development in these regions. A combination of treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy and antidepressant medication is effective to improve attentional control processing in CCFS patients. Studies identifying the features of neurocognitive impairment in CCFS have improved our current understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms of CCFS.Frontiers in Physiology 04/2013; 4:87. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2013.00087
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ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to examine the development of attention and response inhibition from ages 5 to 7. Forty children (20 5-year-olds and 20 7-year-olds) completed four counterbalanced phases of a continuous performance task. Phase 1 was designed to measure attention without distraction, Phase 2 was designed to measure attention with distraction, Phase 3 was designed to measure attention and response inhibition without distraction, and Phase 4 was designed to measure attention and response inhibition with distraction. With regard to attention, 7-year-olds performed significantly better than 5-year-olds. This age difference was more pronounced when distraction was present. With regard to response inhibition, there were no significant age differences. These results appear to suggest that attention improves between ages 5 and 7 but response inhibition does not. However, conclusions regarding response inhibition were limited because the distraction appeared to have had too powerful an effect on the 5-year-olds. Implications and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Infant and Child Development 09/2008; 17(5):491 - 502. DOI:10.1002/icd.563 · 1.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Behavioral and event-related potential measures of distraction and reorientation were obtained from children (6 years), young (19-24 years) and elderly adults (62-82 years) in an auditory distraction-paradigm. Participants performed a go/nogo duration discrimination task on a sequence of short and long (50-50%) tones. In children, reaction times were longer and discrimination (d') scores were lower than in adults. Occasionally (15%), the pitch of the presented tones was changed. The task-irrelevant feature variation resulted in longer reaction times and lower d' scores with no significant differences between the three groups. Task-irrelevant changes affected the N1 amplitude and elicited the mismatch negativity, N2b, P3 and reorienting negativity (RON) sequence of event-related brain potentials. In children, the P3 latency was the same as in young adults. However the RON component was delayed by about 100ms. In the elderly, P3 and RON were uniformly delayed by about 80ms compared to young adults. This pattern of results provides evidence that distraction influences different processing stages in the three groups. Restoration of the task-optimal attention set was delayed in children, whereas in the elderly, the triggering of involuntary attention-switching required longer time.Neurobiology of aging 12/2007; 30(7):1157-72. DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2007.10.003 · 4.85 Impact Factor