Decreased neutrophil adhesion to human cytomegalovirus-infected retinal pigment epithelial cells is mediated by virus-induced up-regulation of Fas ligand independent of neutrophil apoptosis.
ABSTRACT Human CMV (HCMV) retinitis frequently leads to blindness in iatrogenically immunosuppressed patients and in the end stage of AIDS. Despite the general proinflammatory potential of HCMV, virus infection is associated with a rather mild cellular inflammatory response in the retina. To investigate this phenomenon, the influence of HCMV (strains AD169 or Hi91) infection on C-X-C chemokine secretion, ICAM-1 expression, and neutrophil recruitment in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells was studied. Supernatants from infected cultures contained enhanced levels of IL-8 and melanoma growth-stimulating activity/Gro alpha and induced neutrophil chemotaxis compared with supernatants from uninfected RPE cells. Despite HCMV-induced ICAM-1 expression on RPE cells, binding of activated neutrophils to HCMV-infected RPE cells and subsequent transepithelial penetration were significantly reduced. Reduced neutrophil adhesion to infected RPE cells correlated with HCMV-induced up-regulation of constitutive Fas ligand (FasL) expression. Functional blocking of FasL on RPE cells with the neutralizing mAbs NOK-1 and NOK-2 or of the Fas receptor on neutrophils with mAbB-D29 prevented the HCMV-induced impairment of neutrophil/RPE interactions. Fas-FasL-dependent impairment of neutrophil binding had occurred by 10 min after neutrophil/RPE coculture without apoptotic signs. Neutrophil apoptosis was first detected after 4 h. Treatment of neutrophils with a specific inhibitor of caspase-8 suppressed apoptosis, whereas it did not prevent impaired neutrophil binding to infected RPE. The current results suggest a novel role for FasL in the RPE regulation of neutrophil binding. This may be an important feature of virus escape mechanisms and for sustaining the immune-privileged character of the retina during HCMV ocular infection.
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ABSTRACT: The arterial in line application of the leukocyte inhibition module (LIM) in the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) limits overshooting leukocyte activity during cardiac surgery. We studied in a porcine model whether LIM may have beneficial effects on cardiac function after CPB. German landrace pigs underwent CPB (60 min myocardial ischemia; 30 min reperfusion) without (group I; n = 6) or with LIM (group II; n = 6). The cardiac indices (CI) and cardiac function were analyzed pre and post CPB with a Swan-Ganz catheter and the cardiac function analyzer. Neutrophil labeling with technetium, scintigraphy, and histological analyses were done to track activated neutrophils within the organs. LIM prevented CPB-associated increase of neutrophil counts in peripheral blood. In group I, the CI significantly declined post CPB (post: 3.26 +/- 0.31; pre: 4.05 +/- 0.45 l/min/m2; p < 0.01). In group II, the CI was only slightly reduced (post: 3.86 +/- 0.49; pre 4.21 +/- 1.32 l/min/m2; p = 0.23). Post CPB, the intergroup difference showed significantly higher CI values in the LIM group (p < 0.05) which was in conjunction with higher pre-load independent endsystolic pressure volume relationship (ESPVR) values (group I: 1.57 +/- 0.18; group II: 1.93 +/- 0.16; p < 0.001). Moreover, the systemic vascular resistance and pulmonary vascular resistance were lower in the LIM group. LIM appeared to accelerate the sequestration of hyperactivated neutrophils in the spleen and to reduce neutrophil infiltration of heart and lung. Our data provides strong evidence that LIM improves perioperative hemodynamics and cardiac function after CPB by limiting neutrophil activity and inducing accelerated sequestration of neutrophils in the spleen.Journal of Inflammation 01/2007; 4:21. · 2.26 Impact Factor
Article: Phenotypic and genetic characterization of varicella-zoster virus mutants resistant to acyclovir, brivudine and/or foscarnet.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The treatment of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation is based on nucleoside analogues acyclovir (ACV) and bromevinyldeoxyuridine (BVdU) and a phosphonic acid derivative (PFA). Drug-resistant mutants of 3 wild-type (WT) VZV strains were obtained by exposure of human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells inoculated with cell-free WT virus at increasing concentrations of ACV, BVdU, and PFA. In addition to single-drug resistance, a cross-resistance of isolates vs. ACV was observed for PFA-resistant strains. Single-nucleotide (nt) exchanges resulting in amino acid (aa) substitutions were observed within the DNA polymerase (ORF 28) and/or thymidine kinase (ORF 36) of 3 of 3 ACV-, 2 of 3 BVdU-, and 3 of 3 PFA-resistant strains. Interestingly, aa substitutions were also observed within the immediate-early regulatory protein and major transactivator IE 62 (ORF 62), and the envelope glycoprotein (g) I (ORF 67) of the BVdU-resistant mutant of strain PP. No aa substitutions were observed in the protein sequences of gene products encoded by ORF 5 (gK, a glycoprotein arranging exocytosis of viral-loaded vacuoles), ORF 14 (gC), ORF 31 (gB), ORF 37 (gH), ORF 47 (protein kinase, involved in major phosphorylating processes), ORF 60 (gL, important for syncytia forming of infected cells in combination with gH), ORF 63 (major transactivator, part of the tegument), and ORF 68 (gE, triggers fusion of viral loaded vacuoles with cell membranes by heterodimerizing with gI). Phenotypic analysis revealed a slow-growth phenotype and a formation of smaller plaques of resistant mutants. Future studies should prove the presence of those resistant mutants in herpes zoster patients and the potential consequences of their putative reduced fitness on the success of therapeutical interventions.Medical Microbiology and Immunology 03/2011; 200(3):193-202. · 3.83 Impact Factor
Article: Molecular characterization of EP6--a novel imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine based direct 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) is a crucial enzyme of the arachidonic acid (AA) cascade and catalyzes the formation of bioactive leukotrienes (LTs) which are involved in inflammatory diseases and allergic reactions. The pathophysiological effects of LTs are considered to be prevented by 5-LO inhibitors. In this study we present cyclohexyl-[6-methyl-2-(4-morpholin-4-yl-phenyl)-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl]-amine (EP6), a novel imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine based compound and its characterization in several in vitro assays. EP6 suppresses 5-LO activity in intact polymorphonuclear leukocytes with an IC(50) value of 0.16μM and exhibits full inhibitory potency in cell free assays (IC(50) value of 0.05μM for purified 5-LO). The efficacy of EP6 was not affected by the redox tone or the concentration of exogenous AA, characteristic drawbacks known for the class of nonredox-type 5-LO inhibitors. Furthermore, EP6 suppressed 5-LO activity independently of the cell stimulus or the activation pathway of 5-LO contrary to what is known for some nonredox-type inhibitors. Using molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis studies, we were able to derive a feasible binding region within the C2-like domain of 5-LO that can serve as a new starting point for optimization and development of new 5-LO inhibitors targeting this site. EP6 has promising effects on cell viability of tumor cells without mutagenic activity. Hence the drug may possess potential for intervention with inflammatory and allergic diseases and certain types of cancer including leukemia.Biochemical pharmacology 01/2012; 83(2):228-40. · 4.25 Impact Factor