The yeast NuA4 and Drosophila MSL complexes contain homologous subunits important for transcription regulation.
ABSTRACT In Drosophila, the MSL complex is required for the dosage compensation of X-linked genes in males and contains a histone acetyltransferase, MOF. A point mutation in the MOF acetyl-CoA-binding site results in male-specific lethality. Yeast Esa1p, a MOF homolog, is essential for cell cycle progression and is the catalytic subunit of the NuA4 acetyltransferase complex. Here we report that NuA4 purified from yeast with a point mutation in the acetyl-CoA-binding domain of Esa1p exhibits a strong decrease in histone acetyltransferase activity, yet has no effect on growth. We demonstrate that Eaf3p (Esa1p-associated factor-3 protein), a yeast protein homologous to the Drosophila dosage compensation protein MSL3, is also a stable component of the NuA4 complex. Unlike other subunits of the complex, it is not essential, and the deletion mutant has no growth phenotype. NuA4 purified from the mutant strain has a decreased apparent molecular mass, but retains wild-type levels of histone H4 acetyltransferase activity. The EAF3 deletion and the ESA1 mutation lead to a decrease in PHO5 gene expression; the EAF3 deletion also significantly reduces HIS4 and TRP4 expressions. These results, together with those previously obtained with both the MSL and NuA4 complexes, underscore the importance of targeted histone H4 acetylation for the gene-specific activation of transcription.
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ABSTRACT: The level of stem cell proliferation must be tightly controlled for proper development and tissue homeostasis. Multiple levels of gene regulation are often employed to regulate stem cell proliferation to ensure that the amount of proliferation is aligned with the needs of the tissue. Here we focus on proteasome-mediated protein degradation as a means of regulating the activities of proteins involved in controlling the stem cell proliferative fate in the C. elegans germ line. We identify five potential E3 ubiquitin ligases, including the RFP-1 RING finger protein, as being involved in regulating proliferative fate. RFP-1 binds to MRG-1, a homologue of the mammalian chromodomain-containing protein MRG15 (MORF4L1), which has been implicated in promoting the proliferation of neural precursor cells. We find that C. elegans with reduced proteasome activity, or that lack RFP-1 expression, have increased levels of MRG-1 and a shift towards increased proliferation in sensitized genetic backgrounds. Likewise, reduction of MRG-1 partially suppresses stem cell overproliferation. MRG-1 levels are controlled independently of the spatially regulated GLP-1/Notch signalling pathway, which is the primary signal controlling the extent of stem cell proliferation in the C. elegans germ line. We propose a model in which MRG-1 levels are controlled, at least in part, by the proteasome, and that the levels of MRG-1 set a threshold upon which other spatially regulated factors act in order to control the balance between the proliferative fate and differentiation in the C. elegans germ line. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.Development 01/2015; 142(2):291-302. DOI:10.1242/dev.115147 · 6.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Histone acetyltransferase complex NuA4 and histone variant exchanging complex SWR1 are two chromatin modifying complexes which act cooperatively in yeast and share some intriguing structural similarities. Protein subunits of NuA4 and SWR1-C are highly conserved across eukaryotes, but form different multiprotein arrangements. For example, the human TIP60-p400 complex consists of homologues of both yeast NuA4 and SWR1-C subunits, combining subunits necessary for histone acetylation and histone variant exchange. It is currently not known what protein complexes are formed by the plant homologues of NuA4 and SWR1-C subunits. We report on the identification and molecular characterization of AtEAF1, a new subunit of Arabidopsis NuA4 complex which shows many similarities to the platform protein of the yeast NuA4 complex. AtEAF1 copurifies with Arabidopsis homologues of NuA4 and SWR1-C subunits ARP4 and SWC4 and interacts physically with AtYAF9A and AtYAF9B, homologues of the YAF9 subunit. Plants carrying a T-DNA insertion in one of the genes encoding AtEAF1 showed decreased FLC expression and early flowering, similarly to Atyaf9 mutants. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses of the single mutant Ateaf1b-2 and artificial miRNA knock-down Ateaf1 lines showed decreased levels of H4K5 acetylation in the promoter regions of major flowering regulator genes, further supporting the role of AtEAF1 as a subunit of the plant NuA4 complex. Growing evidence suggests that the molecular functions of the NuA4 and SWR1 complexes are conserved in plants and contribute significantly to plant development and physiology. Our work provides evidence for the existence of a yeast-like EAF1 platform protein in A. thaliana, filling an important gap in the knowledge about the subunit organization of the plant NuA4 complex.BMC Plant Biology 03/2015; 15(1):75. DOI:10.1186/s12870-015-0461-1 · 3.94 Impact Factor