Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a hepatotropic virus, but its genome and replicative intermediates also have been detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Chronic HCV infection may lead to hepatocellular carcinoma and, in a small percentage of cases, to B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. To our knowledge, coexistence of these 2 tumors has not been reported previously. We describe a case of chronic hepatitis C and cirrhosis with 2 small hepatocellular carcinomas and incidental non-Hodgkin lymphoma of a hilar lymph node found during liver transplantation. Although the mechanisms of HCV oncogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma and in lymphoma are unclear, the presence of these 2 tumors in a single patient are in agreement with the tropism of HCV and its role in oncogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are the prototypic complications of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in the liver. However, hepatitis C virus also affects a variety of other organs that may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C infection include a multitude of disease processes affecting the small vessels, skin, kidneys, salivary gland, eyes, thyroid, and immunologic system. The majority of these conditions are thought to be immune mediated. The most documented of these entities is mixed cryoglobulinemia. Morphologically, immune complex depositions can be identified in small vessels and glomerular capillary walls, leading to leukoclastic vasculitis in the skin and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in the kidney. Other HCV-associated entities include porphyria cutanea tarda, lichen planus, necrolytic acral erythema, membranous glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy, B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, insulin resistance, sialadenitis, sicca syndrome, and autoimmune thyroiditis. This paper highlights the histomorphologic features of these processes, which are typically characterized by chronic inflammation, immune complex deposition, and immunoproliferative disease in the affected organ.
"As for primary lymphoma, its histogenesis remains obscure. Recently, some reports have suggested the possible pathogenic role of HBV and HCV [9-13]. It has been reported that chronic liver disease accompanied primary lymphoma of the spleen in 14 (14.3%) of 98 cases . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coexistence of splenic marginal zone lymphoma with hepatocellular carcinoma is rare. Although some reports have suggested the possible pathogenic role of HBV, HCV, chronic and persistent antigenic stimulation in lymphoma, their role in causing lymphomas is still unclear.
We describe a hepatocellular carcinoma with concomitant splenic marginal zone lymphoma in a 64-year-old Chinese man with cirrhosis. Serum hepatitis B virus surface antigen was positive and antihepatitis C virus antibody was negative. The resected liver mass measuring 4 x 3 x 3 cm was grey and soft with a small area of bleeding, necrosis and intact capsule. Cut surface of the spleen was red-purple and had a diffuse reticulonodular appearance indicative of prominent white pulp. On histologic sections, the liver mass was well and moderately differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma, and the splenic tumor was a specific low-grade small B-cell lymphoma. Immunohistochemical staining and gene rearrangement studies supported that the splenic tumor represents a clonal B-cell lymphoma. Therefore, the diagnosis of SMZL was made from the splenic specimen.
To our knowledge, this is the second case report describing coexistence of hepatocellular carcinoma and splenic marginal zone lymphoma in the course of chronic HBV infection. However, we cannot assert at present that hepatitis B virus is directly involved in splenic lymphomagenesis until more information is collected from more cases in the future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary malignant liver tumors can arise from different components of the liver, such as hepatocytes, bile duct epithelium, neuroendocrine cells, and mesenchymal cells. A specific diagnosis frequently can be suggested from imaging studies, but biopsy remains the gold standard for definitive diagnosis of liver tumors. Clinical history of chronic liver disease, known risk factors, or other diseases are of great importance. Patient's age is also an important discriminating feature because several tumors such as hepatoblastoma, mesenchymal hamartoma, and infantile hemangioendothelioma, are found predominantly in pediatric populations, whereas cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma are rare in pediatric populations.
Clinics in Liver Disease 06/2002; 6(2):527-54, ix. DOI:10.1016/S1089-3261(02)00005-3 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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