Mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis C virus: Evidence for preventable peripartum transmission

Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit, London, UK.
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 10/2000; 356(9233):904-7. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02681-7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Little information is available about the timing of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV), and no interventions to decrease transmission rates have been identified. We examined the effect of risk factors, including mode of delivery, on the vertical transmission rate.
Data from HCV-infected women and their infants from three hospitals in Ireland and from a British Paediatric Surveillance Unit study of infants born to HCV-infected mothers were used to estimate the vertical transmission rate and risk factors for transmission. We used a probabilistic model using methods that simultaneously estimated the time to HCV-antibody loss in uninfected infants and the diagnostic accuracy of PCR tests for HCV RNA.
441 mother-child pairs from the UK (227) and Ireland (214) were included. 50% of uninfected children became HCV-antibody negative by 8 months and 95% by 13 months. The estimated specificity of PCR for HCV RNA was 97% (95% CI 96-99) and was unrelated to age; sensitivity was only 22% (7-46) in the first month but rose sharply to 97% (85-100) thereafter. The vertical transmission rate was 6.7% (4.1-10.2) overall, and 3.8 times higher in HIV coinfected (n=22) than in HIV-negative women after adjustment for other factors (p=0.06). No effect of breastfeeding on transmission was observed, although only 59 women breastfed. However, delivery by elective caesarean section before membrane rupture was associated with a lower transmission risk than vaginal or emergency caesarean-section delivery (odds ratio 0 [0-0.87], p=0.04, after adjustment for other factors).
The low sensitivity of HCV RNA soon after birth and the finding of a lower transmission rate after delivery by elective caesarean section suggest that HCV transmission occurs predominantly around the time of delivery. If the findings on elective caesarean section are confirmed in other studies, the case for antenatal HCV testing should be reconsidered.

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    • "Maternal transmission has been reduced dramatically by universal offering of antenatal HIV screening and highly active anti-retroviral therapy for maternal HIV disease disease. For HCV carriers, the risk of sexual transmission is low, but around a 6% HCV transmission rate applies from an HCV carrier mother to her infant (Gibb et al., 2000; Hutchinson et al., 2004). (h) Reinfection rates after clearance of HCV carriage: whether patients have a recent history of injection drug use can matter when it comes to sustained clearance of HCV carriage because those who relapse into injecting may become reinfected (Dalgard et al., 2002). "
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    Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A (Statistics in Society) 10/2013; 177(3). DOI:10.1111/rssa.12030 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    • "HCV infection in HIV-1 infected patients is usually caused by drug injection (90%) and blood or blood products transfusion (70%) (3, 4). The major cause of death in HIV-1 infected patients who receive HAART which prevents the progress of HIV-1 infection is the HCV mediated hepatotoxicity (5, 6). In addition, simultaneous HIV-1 infection and HCV-related hepatic diseases, like cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma, rapidly increases in these patients (7, 8). "
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    • "Important factors contributing to HBV spread include unsafe use of therapeutic injections,[10] blood transfusion, [11] tattooing,[12] mother to child transmission [13] and unsafe sexual practices [14,15]. In Pakistan, therapeutic injections administered in health care settings have been identified as major and consistently reported risk factors for HBV. "
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