Immunoreactivity of intact virions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reveals the existence of fewer HIV-1 immunotypes than genotypes.
ABSTRACT In order to protect against organisms that exhibit significant genetic variation, polyvalent vaccines are needed. Given the extreme variability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), it is probable that a polyvalent vaccine will also be needed for protection from this virus. However, to understand how to construct a polyvalent vaccine, serotypes or immunotypes of HIV must be identified. In the present study, we have examined the immunologic relatedness of intact, native HIV-1 primary isolates of group M, clades A to H, with human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed at epitopes in the V3, C5, and gp41 cluster I regions of the envelope glycoproteins, since these regions are well exposed on the virion surface. Multivariate analysis of the binding data revealed three immunotypes of HIV-1 and five MAb groups useful for immunotyping of the viruses. The analysis revealed that there are fewer immunotypes than genotypes of HIV and that clustering of the isolates did not correlate with either genotypes, coreceptor usage (CCR5 and CXCR4), or geographic origin of the isolates. Further analysis revealed distinct MAb groups that bound preferentially to HIV-1 isolates belonging to particular immunotypes or that bound to all three immunotypes; this demonstrates that viral immunotypes identified by mathematical analysis are indeed defined by their immunologic characteristics. In summary, these results indicate (i) that HIV-1 immunotypes can be defined, (ii) that constellations of epitopes that are conserved among isolates belonging to each individual HIV-1 immunotype exist and that these distinguish each of the immunotypes, and (iii) that there are also epitopes that are routinely shared by all immunotypes.
Article: Potent and synergistic neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 primary isolates by hyperimmune anti-HIV immunoglobulin combined with monoclonal antibodies 2F5 and 2G12.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Three antibody reagents that neutralize primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates were tested for magnitude and breadth of neutralization when used alone or in double or triple combinations. Hyperimmune anti-HIV immunoglobulin (HIVIG) is derived from the plasma of HIV-1-infected donors, and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 2F5 and 2G12 bind to distinct regions of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. The antibodies were initially tested against a panel of 15 clade B HIV-1 isolates, using a single concentration that is achievable in vivo (HIVIG, 2,500 microg/ml; MAbs, 25 microg/ml). Individual antibody reagents neutralized many of the viruses tested, but antibody potency varied substantially among the viruses. The virus neutralization produced by double combinations of HIVIG plus 2F5 or 2G12, the two MAbs together, or the triple combination of HIVIG, 2F5, and 2G12 was generally equal to or greater than that predicted by the effect of individual antibodies. Overall, the triple combination displayed the greatest magnitude and breadth of neutralization. Synergistic neutralization was evaluated by analyzing data from dose-response curves of each individual antibody reagent compared to the triple combination and was demonstrated against each of four viruses tested. Therefore, combinations of polyclonal and monoclonal anti-HIV antibodies can produce additive or synergistic neutralization of primary HIV-1 isolates. Passive immunotherapy for treatment or prophylaxis of HIV-1 should consider mixtures of potent neutralizing antibody reagents to expand the magnitude and breadth of virus neutralization.Journal of Virology 11/1997; 71(10):7198-206. · 5.40 Impact Factor
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology 09/1994; 22(3):211-3.
Article: 40Ca(p,d)39Ca reaction at 65 MeV.Physical Review C 08/1993; 48(1):95-104. · 3.31 Impact Factor