Computed tomography after lymphangiography in the diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia with protein-losing enteropathy in Noonan's syndrome
ABSTRACT Noonan's syndrome is a rare congenital disorder that may be associated with abnormalities in the lymphatic drainage. In this case of a 21-year-old man CT after bipedal lymphangiography confirmed the diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasy causing protein-losing enteropathy in Noonan's syndrome by showing contrast-enhanced abnormal lymphatic vessels in the mesentery and the intestinal wall. Because of the benefit of diet in case of intestinal involvement, we recommend a thorough documentation of the lymphatic drainage with lymphangiography followed by CT, if clinical signs of lymphatic dysplasia, such as pleural effusions, lymphedema, or hypoproteinemia are present.
Klinische Pädiatrie 07/2005; 217(4):201-210. DOI:10.1055/s-2004-820329 · 1.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intestinal lymphangiectasia is a well-recognized complication of the Fontan procedure, occurring in up to 24% of patients. Because of the loss of chylous fluid into the gut lumen, protein-losing enteropathy results as well as lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinaemia. In some cases, dilated lymphatics in the intestinal serosa or mesentery also rupture, causing chylous ascites. Standard medical and cardiac surgical interventions are generally ineffective and the condition is frequently lethal. We report a case of intractable and life-threatening chylous ascites and chylothorax in a 14-year-old girl, associated with intestinal lymphangiectasia and protein-losing enteropathy after a Fontan procedure for tricuspid atresia. The condition was refractory to all standard medical therapies, including dietary modifications, diuretics, corticosteroid therapy, albumin infusions, octreotide, heparin, bowel rest, and parenteral nutrition. Cardiac surgery to optimize her hemodynamic status was also ineffective and large volume pleural and ascitic fluid losses continued. Having exhausted all other therapeutic modalities, (99m)technetium-dextran scintigraphy was performed to assess the extent of intestinal protein loss and the potential for surgical intervention. Scintigraphy suggested localized protein loss from the proximal jejunum and subsequent segmental resection was effective. Postoperatively, ascites and pleural effusions resolved, and there was no evidence of short bowel syndrome. Growth has accelerated and the patient has entered puberty. There is mild persistent intestinal protein loss requiring diuretic therapy. Ascites or pleural effusions are absent, and the patient remains well > 2 years after surgery. Intestinal lymphangiectasia post-Fontan procedures has traditionally been ascribed to hemodynamic factors such as raised systemic venous pressure, which would predispose to a generalized intestinal lesion. However, in this case, scintigraphy demonstrated a localized, surgically correctible lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of the use of (99m)technetium-dextran scintigraphy for this indication and of successful partial small bowel resection in such a case.Pediatrics 02/2003; 112(3). DOI:10.1542/peds.112.3.e242 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Noonan syndrome is characterized by facial dysmorphology, congenital heart disease and growth failure. Although it is also accompanied by deranged lymph-vessel formation, protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) with Noonan syndrome is rarely reported. We report clinical information about a boy with Noonan syndrome and late-onset lymphedema and PLE after standing for long periods of time during athletic practice sessions. The boy recovered from lymphedema and PLE after administration of 2.5 g of albumin followed by resting and raising his legs. They did not recur after he began walking again. Standing for long periods of time congested the lymph stream at the abdominal lymph vessel, whose formation is frequently disturbed in Noonan syndrome, and the increased pressure caused lymphedema and PLE. PLE is one of the clinical manifestations of Noonan syndrome.Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology 07/2009; 18(3):87-93. DOI:10.1297/cpe.18.87