Chemokines like RANTES appear to play a role in organ transplant rejection. Because RANTES is a potent agonist for the chemokine receptor CCR1, we examined whether the CCR1 receptor antagonist BX471 is efficacious in a rat heterotopic heart transplant rejection model. Treatment of animals with BX471 and a subtherapeutic dose of cyclosporin (2.5 mg/kg), which is by itself ineffective in prolonging transplant rejection, is much more efficacious in prolonging transplantation rejection than animals treated with either cyclosporin or BX471 alone. We have examined the mechanism of action of the CCR1 antagonist in in vitro flow assays over microvascular endothelium and have discovered that the antagonist blocks the firm adhesion of monocytes triggered by RANTES on inflamed endothelium. Together, these data demonstrate a significant role for CCR1 in allograft rejection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In spite of many promising experimental studies, an effective treatment dramatically eliminating the secondary damage after spinal cord injury (SCI) is still missing. Since clinical data on the therapeutical effect after methylprednisolone treatment are not conclusive, new therapeutical modalities targeting specific components of secondary spinal cord damage needs to be developed. It is known that immune cells are recruited to injury sites by chemokines, which are small, structurally similar proteins released locally at the site of inflammation. Hence, this review was aimed to summarize possible roles of chemokines in the inflammation following SCI as well as to identify possible new therapeutical targets which can potentially be effective in ameliorating individual components of this inflammatory response. Data concerning inflammation reduction together with techniques improving axonal growth, cell replacement and remyelinization, may be crucial to move a small step forward in an attempt to make paraplegic and quadriplegic patients to walk.
"During acute rejection, recipient T cell activation fuelled by graft co-stimulatory molecules such as CD40/CD154 up-regulates expression of IFN-γ [6, 32], interleukins 1, 6, 8 and 12 as well as TNF-α and MIP-1α in dendritic cells  and that of E-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in the endothelial cells of the graft blood vessels . Furthermore, MCP-1/CCL2 and RANTES/CCL5, potent chemotactic factors for monocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ positive T cells, basophils, and eosinophils  have been shown, albeit with different kinetics, to be up-regulated in cardiac allografts [9, 13, 27], an effect that may also have important consequences for chronic graft rejection, i.e. transplant arteriosclerosis . As a result, recruitment and invasion of mononuclear cells, namely monocytes and T cells, into the transplant is augmented with the ensuing acute inflammatory response presumably leading to graft loss. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During acute rejection of cardiac transplants endothelial cell-leukocyte interaction fueled by co-stimulatory molecules like CD40/CD154 may ultimately lead to graft loss. One key player in up-regulating the expression of such pro-inflammatory gene products is the interferon-gamma-dependent transcription factor STAT-1. Hence down-regulating interferon-gamma-stimulated pro-inflammatory gene expression in the graft endothelial cells by employing a decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (dODN) neutralising STAT-1 may protect the graft. To verify this hypothesis, heterotopic mouse heart transplantation was performed in the allogeneic B10.A(2R) to C57BL/6 and syngeneic C57BL/6 to C57BL/6 strain combination without immunosuppression. Graft vessels were pre-treated with STAT-1 dODN, mutant control ODN (10 muM each) or vehicle (Ringer solution). Cellular rejection (vascular and interstitial component) was graded histologically and CD40, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1, E-selectin and RANTES expression in the graft monitored by real time PCR 24 h and 9 days post-transplantation. Nine days after transplantation both rejection scores were significantly diminished by 85 and 70%, respectively, in STAT-1 dODN-treated allografts as compared to mutant control ODN-treated allografts. According to immunohistochemistry analysis, this was accompanied by a reduced infiltration of monocyte/macrophages and T cells into the graft myocardium. In addition, pro-inflammatory gene expression was strongly impaired by more than 80% in STAT-1 dODN-treated allografts 24 h post-transplantation but not in mutant control ODN or vehicle-treated allografts. This inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory gene expression was no longer detectable 9 days post-transplantation. Single periprocedural treatment with a STAT-1 dODN thus effectively reduces cellular rejection in mouse heart allografts. This effect is associated both with an early decline in pro-inflammatory gene expression and a later drop in mononuclear cell infiltration.
Archiv für Kreislaufforschung 05/2009; 104(6):719-29. DOI:10.1007/s00395-009-0028-0 · 5.41 Impact Factor
"However, no data using this compound in an experimental model of arthritis have been published. While this compound is a potent antagonist of the human receptor, it exhibits only a moderate antagonistic effect on rat and mouse CCR1 receptors (Horuk et al., 2001). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chemokine receptor CCR1 is a potential target for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. To explore the impact of CCR1 blockade in experimental arthritis and the underlying mechanisms, we used J-113863, a non-peptide antagonist of the mouse receptor.
Compound J-113863 was tested in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and three models of acute inflammation; Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB)-induced interleukin-2 (IL-2), delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumour necrosis factoralpha (TNFalpha) production. In the LPS model, CCR1 knockout, adrenalectomised, or IL-10-depleted mice were also used. Production of TNFalpha by mouse macrophages and human synovial membrane samples in vitro were also studied.
Treatment of arthritic mice with J-113863 improved paw inflammation and joint damage, and dramatically decreased cell infiltration into joints. The compound did not inhibit IL-2 or DTH, but reduced plasma TNFalpha levels in LPS-treated mice. Surprisingly, CCR1 knockout mice produced more TNFalpha than controls in response to LPS, and J-113863 decreased TNFalpha also in CCR1 null mice, indicating that its effect was unrelated to CCR1. Adrenalectomy or neutralisation of IL-10 did not prevent inhibition of TNFalpha production by J-113863. The compound did not inhibit mouse TNFalpha in vitro, but did induce a trend towards increased TNFalpha release in cells from synovial membranes of rheumatoid arthritis patients.
CCR1 blockade improves the development of CIA, probably via inhibition of inflammatory cell recruitment. However, results from both CCR1-deficient mice and human synovial membranes suggest that, in some experimental settings, blocking CCR1 could enhance TNF production.
British Journal of Pharmacology 12/2006; 149(6):666-75. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706912 · 4.84 Impact Factor
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