Implementing a unified approach to family-based tests of association
ABSTRACT We describe a broad class of family-based association tests that are adjusted for admixture; use either dichotomous or measured phenotypes; accommodate phenotype-unknown subjects; use nuclear families, sibships or a combination of the two, permit multiple nuclear families from a single pedigree; incorporate di- or multi-allelic marker data; allow additive, dominant or recessive models; and permit adjustment for covariates and gene-by-environment interactions. The test statistic is basically the covariance between a user-specified function of the genotype and a user-specified function of the trait. The distribution of the statistic is computed using the appropriate conditional distribution of offspring genotypes that adjusts for admixture.
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ABSTRACT: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable disorder affecting some 5-10% of children and 4-5% of adults. The cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) is a positional candidate gene due to its location near an identified ADHD linkage peak on chromosome 6, its role in stress and dopamine regulation, its association with other psychiatric disorders that co-occur with ADHD, and its function in learning and memory. We tested SNP variants at the CNR1 gene in two independent samples-an unselected adolescent sample from Northern Finland, and a family-based sample of trios (an ADHD child and their parents). In addition to using the trios for association study, the parents (with and without ADHD) were used as an additional case/control sample of adults for association tests. ADHD and its co-morbid psychiatric disorders were examined. A significant association was detected for a SNP haplotype (C-G) with ADHD (P = 0.008). A sex by genotype interaction was observed as well with this haplotype posing a greater risk in males than females. An association of an alternative SNP haplotype in this gene was found for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (P = 0.04 for C-A, and P = 0.01 for C-G). These observations require replication, however, they suggest that the CNR1 gene may be a risk factor for ADHD and possibly PTSD, and that this gene warrants further investigation for a role in neuropsychiatric disorders.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 12/2008; 147B(8):1488-94. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.30693 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: FBXL21 gene encodes an F-box containing protein functioning in the SCF ubiquitin ligase complex. The role of the F-box protein is to recruit proteins designated for degradation to the ligase complex so they would be ubiquitinated. Using both family and case-control samples, we found consistent associations in and around FBXL21 gene. In the family sample (Irish study of high density schizophrenia families, ISHDSF, 1,350 subjects from 273 families), a minimal PDT P-value of 0.0011 was observed at rs31555. In the case-control sample (Irish case-control study of schizophrenia, ICCSS, 814 cases and 625 controls), significant associations were observed at two markers (rs1859427 P = 0.0197, and rs6861170 P = 0.0197). In haplotype analyses, haplotype 1-1 (C-T) of rs1859427-rs6861170 was overtransmitted in the ISHDSF (P = 0.0437) and was overrepresented in the ICCSS (P = 0.0177). For both samples, the associated alleles and haplotypes were identical. These data suggested that FBXL21 may be associated with schizophrenia in the Irish samples.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 10/2008; 147B(7):1231-7. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.30759 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is among the most common human birth defects, with a prevalence around 1 in 700 live births. The Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) gene has been suggested as a candidate gene for CL/P based largely on mouse models; however, no human studies have focused on RUNX2 as a risk factor for CL/P. This study examines the association between markers in RUNX2 and isolated, nonsyndromic CL/P using a case-parent trio design, while considering parent-of-origin effects. Case-parent trios from four populations (77 from Maryland, 146 from Taiwan, 35 from Singapore, and 40 from Korea) were genotyped for 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the RUNX2 gene. We performed the transmission disequilibrium test on individual SNPs. Parent-of-origin effects were assessed using the transmission asymmetry test and the parent-of-origin likelihood ratio test (PO-LRT). When all trios were combined, the transmission asymmetry test revealed a block of 11 SNPs showing excess maternal transmission significant at the P<0.01 level, plus one SNP (rs1934328) showing excess paternal transmission (P=0.002). For the 11 SNPs showing excess maternal transmission, odds ratios of being transmitted to the case from the mother ranged between 3.00 and 4.00. The parent-of-origin likelihood ratio tests for equality of maternal and paternal transmission were significant for three individual SNPs (rs910586, rs2819861, and rs1934328). Thus, RUNX2 appears to influence risk of CL/P through a parent-of-origin effect with excess maternal transmission.Genetic Epidemiology 09/2008; 32(6):505-12. DOI:10.1002/gepi.20323 · 2.95 Impact Factor