Prospective study of fruit and vegetable consumption and incidence of colon and rectal cancers

Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute (Impact Factor: 12.58). 12/2000; 92(21):1740-52.
Source: PubMed


Frequent consumption of fruit and vegetables has been associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer in many observational studies.
We prospectively investigated the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and the incidence of colon and rectal cancers in two large cohorts: the Nurses' Health Study (88 764 women) and the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study (47 325 men). Diet was assessed and cumulatively updated in 1980, 1984, 1986, and 1990 among women and in 1986 and 1990 among men. The incidence of cancer of the colon and rectum was ascertained up to June or January of 1996, respectively. Relative risk (RR) estimates were calculated with the use of pooled logistic regression models accounting for various potential confounders. All statistical tests were two-sided.
With a follow-up including 1 743 645 person-years and 937 cases of colon cancer, we found little association of colon cancer incidence with fruit and vegetable consumption. For women and men combined, a difference in fruit and vegetable consumption of one additional serving per day was associated with a covariate-adjusted RR of 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.98-1.05). A difference in vegetable consumption of one additional serving per day was associated with an RR of 1.03 (95% CI = 0.97-1.09). Similar results were obtained for women and men considered separately. A difference in fruit consumption of one additional serving per day was associated with a covariate-adjusted RR for colon cancer of 0.96 (95% CI = 0.89-1.03) among women and 1. 08 (95% CI = 1.00-1.16) among men. For rectal cancer (total, 244 cases), a difference in fruit and vegetable consumption of one additional serving per day was associated with an RR of 1.02 (95% CI = 0.95-1.09) in men and women combined. None of these associations was modified by vitamin supplement use or smoking habits.
Although fruits and vegetables may confer protection against some chronic diseases, their frequent consumption does not appear to confer protection from colon or rectal cancer.

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Available from: Graham A Colditz, Sep 30, 2015
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    • "Recent studies have demonstrated that the regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is correlated with a decreased risk of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and different types of cancer. [1] [2] [3] Vegetables belonging to the Brassicaceae family (e.g. broccoli, cabbage, kale and Brussels sprouts), widely consumed in the world, are considered to have a significant function in human nutrition. "
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    ABSTRACT: Glucosinolates are an important class of secondary plant metabolites, possessing health-promoting properties. Young broccoli plants are a very good source of glucosinolates with concentrations several times greater than in mature plants. The aim of our study was to develop a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry qualitative and quantitative method for the measure of glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts. The described method provides high sensitivity and specificity, allowing a rapid and simultaneous determination of 14 glucosinolates. The proposed method has been validated for eight glucosinolates: glucobrassicin, glucoraphanin, glucoiberin, glucoerucin, progoitrin, gluconapin, sinigrin and glucocheirolin. The linear range was 1-150 µg ml(-1) , the intra-day and inter-day precision values are within 6% and 8% at the lower limit of quantification, while the overall recovery of the eight glucosinolates was 99 ± 9%. This validated method was used successfully for analysis of glucosinolates content of broccoli sprouts grown in different conditions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Mass Spectrometry 09/2012; 47(9):1198-206. DOI:10.1002/jms.3028 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    • "Oesophageal cancer has also been associated with gastrointestinal diseases (Koppert et al, 2004). A lower consumption of vegetables, fruit, and fibres, which may protect from oesophageal (Tzonou et al, 1996; Terry et al, 2001b) and colorectal cancer (Pietinen et al, 1999; Michels et al, 2000; Voorrips et al, 2000; Terry et al, 2001a; Bueno-de-Mesquita et al, 2002; Flood et al, 2002), has been reported among lower SES (Wallstrom et al, 2000; Hulshof et al, 2003; Wardle and Steptoe, 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Comorbidity and socioeconomic status (SES) may be related among cancer patients. Population-based cancer registry study among 72,153 patients diagnosed during 1997-2006. Low SES patients had 50% higher risk of serious comorbidity than those with high SES. Prevalence was increased for each cancer site. Low SES cancer patients had significantly higher risk of also having cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, tuberculosis, dementia, and gastrointestinal disease. One-year survival was significantly worse in lowest vs highest SES, partly explained by comorbidity. This illustrates the enormous heterogeneity of cancer patients and stresses the need for optimal treatment of cancer patients with a variety of concomitant chronic conditions.
    British Journal of Cancer 10/2010; 103(11):1742-8. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605949 · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    • "Though synthetic antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxyltoluene and propyl gallate, have been commonly added to food products to retard lipid oxidation, the demand for natural antioxidants has increased because of questions and negative perception of consumers about the long-time safety of synthetic antioxidants (Yu et al., 2002). Regular consumption of fruit and vegetables containing natural antioxidants is correlated with the decreased risk of diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases (Michels et al., 2000). Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.), which belongs to the Ebenaceae family, is cultivated in a wide area, including Eastern Asia, Spain and Israel. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to determine the antioxidant activities and the antigenotoxic effects of acetone, ethanol, methanol and water extracts from four different parts (calyx, seed, peel and flesh) of persimmon fruits. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryllhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity (RSA), ABTS (2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammononium salt) RSA and reducing power (RP). Seed and calyx extracts showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher antioxidant activities and phenolic contents than peel and flesh extracts. This study also showed that ethanol was more effective on the extraction of antioxidant compounds from persimmon compared to other solvents. The antigenotoxic effects of the persimmon extracts on DNA damage induced by H 2 O 2 in human leukocytes was evaluated by Comet assay. All persimmon extracts inhibited DNA damage induced by 200 µM of H 2 O 2 . Especially, calyx and seed extracts showed stronger inhibition activity than peel and flesh extracts. Therefore, these results suggest that persimmon extracts may have beneficial effects on oxidant and protective effect against oxidative DNA damage.
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